Monthly Archives: May 2022

Order of Corporate Reunion (1880)

The Triennial synod of this organisation was held in London yesterday, all the bishops of the order being present. Mass, according to the ancient Sarum rite, was said by the Bishop of Caerleon, and the synod was duly constituted under the presidency of the rector. A circular to the members of the order was approved, certain practical rules and regulations enacted, and the following protest was signed by the rector, Thomas, Pro-Provincial of Canterbury; Joseph, Provincial of York; and Lawrence, Provincial of Caerleon:—”In our first pastoral set forth on the 8th of September, 1877, we had occasion to protest against certain evil results of the long course of change, usurpation, and revolution which has prevailed in the public policy of our country, and which has disturbed all our own landmarks in Church and State, and grievously confounded all social order. It is now necessary, not only to renew that protest, but to include in it an instance which shows a still wider departure from the ancient line of the British Constitution. The subject upon which we are impelled by a sense of duty to make our public protest is weighty and grievous. It is the admission of an avowed and aggressive infidel into the Legislature of this country, against which we note with sorrow that not one of the bishops of the Established Church has lifted up his voice. The circumstances attending this lamentable proceeding are beyond expression distressing and shameful and, closely following upon it, we hear voices raised in favour of removing every check to the caprices of that assembly which has distinguished itself by the admission into its body of the individual to whom we are referring. Englishmen and fellow Christians, we solemnly protest against this iniquity, in the name of God.”

The Morning Post (London), September 9, 1880, p. 5.


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The Faithful Pastor’s Monument, by J.H.A. Bomberger (1852)

The Faithful Pastor’s Monument: A Sermon, Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. Thomas Pomp, for Fifty-Six Years Pastor of the German Reformed Church of Easton, Pa.
By J. H. A. Bomberger, Surviving Pastor of the Congregation.
Easton: Published by the Consistory, 1852.
Digitized by Richard Mammana, 2022.

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At All Saints’, Lambeth (1899)

THE services at All Saints’, Lambeth, where the Rev. F. G. Lee, D.D., has been Vicar for thirty-two years, have long been notorious. The following report of a choral celebration of Holy Communion fully justifies the reputation which the church has obtained.

The district of All Saints’, Lambeth, embraces some of the most squalid parts of South London. The church is situated in a by-street just off the thoroughfare widely known as the Lower Marsh, which runs from Waterloo Road to Westminster Bridge Road. The Vicar—the Rev. Dr. Lee—who has been there a great many years, has for a long time been associated with the “Catholic revival,” and in regard to both doctrine and ritual it has been always understood that you could be sure of the “correct thing” at All Saints’. Moreover, Dr. Lee is one of the clergymen connected with the Order of Corporate Reunion. It is commonly reported that he looks upon Rome with a tender eye, and there is reason to believe that whatever doubts certain advanced clergy may have about the validity of their Orders, he has absolutely none about his own. It is, too, an interesting indication of the Vicar’s sympathies that amongst the numerous cards at the west end of the church, begging you of your charity to pray for the repose of the soul of So-and-so, is one bearing the name of Cardinal Newman.

I do not know for how long All Saints’ has been notorious for its “Catholic” services, but certainly the church was never built for a display of advanced ritual. It does not even possess a chancel; it has an apse instead. But any difficulty on this score has been removed by the erection across the nave of the church of a wooden screen of slender build, and surmounted by a crucifix and six candles. Within this screen sat choir and clergy. The choir was not a large one, but two of the men had brass instruments, so there was a good volume of sound. Contrary to general custom the clergy seats are at the east end of the stalls farthest away from the people. The High Altar is in the apse. Just below the steps leading to the High Altar there are three chairs, and behind them a large reading-desk, all placed so that anyone using them would be facing eastwards. There are two side-altars, and the whole appearance of the east end seemed rather to suggest that of a not too well-kept Roman Catholic chapel. The church itself looked dirty and decayed; but it is clear that other things at All Saints’ need restoring besides the fabric.

The church seats something like 2000 people, for there are deep galleries along either side and at the west end; but on Sunday morning last, when I was present at Matins and at the choral celebration, it was almost empty. The congregation consisted of two men (one of whom was myself), eight women, and seven children, and of these one woman and two children left the church during the progress of the service. It is quite evident, therefore, that whatever may be the influence of Catholic doctrine and high ritual amongst the leisured classes of the West, they have no power to attract the masses of this parish. It was a melancholy sight-a congregation of seventeen in a church capable of holding 2000, and Dr. Lee, standing before the High Altar, attired in gorgeous vestments and celebrating the Communion to the accompaniment of organ, trumpets, and choir.

Of the service itself not much need be said. It followed the lines with which the reader is by this time familiar, except that the ritual was less ornate than that to be seen at the West End. But seeing that the offertories are so small in amount it is obvious that the strictest economy must be practised. Dr. Lee announced from the altar that on the previous Sunday they amounted to one shilling in the morning and two shillings at night, and threepence at a celebration during the week.

For the celebration there were four candles lighted at the High Altar. Dr. Lee was the celebrant. He wore a green chasuble, and was attended by a lad who acted as server. The Introit having been sung, he began the service at the north side of the altar, only crossing to the south side for the Collect and Epistle, both of which he read facing eastwards. He recrossed to the north side for the Gospel, but before he read it he bowed towards the elements. The sermon-a very short one-was preached by the curate, who, as he passed the small altar in the north aisle on his way to and from the pulpit, ostentatiously bowed towards it. But there was no other evidence of the Reserved Sacrament being there. During the offertory hymn Dr. Lee went to the south corner of the altar and washed his fingers with some water that was brought to him by the server from the credence table, and wiped them with a towel. Returning to the centre of the altar he read the Prayer for the Church Militant, adding to the clause, “And we also bless Thy Holy Name for all Thy servants departed this life in Thy faith and fear,” the words “Particularly those for whom we are bound to pray.” During the singing of the Sanctus the sacring-bell was rung three times by the server, and the celebrant bowed his head over the elements. The Prayer of Consecration was said with the accompaniments usual at such churches, the Benedictus was sung as a preliminary to it; during its recital the sacring-bell was rung at the words “This is My Body,” and again at the words “This is My Blood”; the host was elevated and the celebrant genuflected before the consecrated elements; and at the close the Agnus Dei was sung.

There were no communicants. Dr. Lee turned to the people with the paten in his hand, but no one approached, and he resumed the service. It seems strange that when the service is merely a Mass and not a Communion that the celebrant should not hesitate to use the prayer which contains the words “humbly beseeching Thee, that all we, who are partakers of this Holy Communion …”; but Dr. Lee used it on Sunday as I have heard other priests use it under precisely similar circumstances. The service was then brought to a close. In pronouncing the blessing Dr. Lee made the sign of the cross three times at the mention of the Trinity. A hymn was sung while the ablutions were being performed, and the service finally concluded with the singing of the Nunc Dimittis.

It is hardly necessary to comment upon a service of this kind; it carries with it its own condemnation.

The Roman Mass in the English Church: Illegal Services Described by Eye-Witnesses, Reprinted by Permission from The Record, with Introduction and Notes (London: Charles J. Thynne, 1899), pp. 50-53.

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Daniel Nash, 1797-1836 (1859)

My dear Sir: There are probably few Episcopalians, who have lived within the limits of the State of New York, at any period during the last sixty years, who are not familiar with the name of “Father Nash.” I have myself had, from early life, a deep interest in his history and character. Well do I remember, while in my boyhood, having heard my father (the Rev. George H. Norton) speak of his journey on horseback to Otsego County, N. Y., in 1819, to receive Priest’s Orders at the hands of Bishop Hobart; of his getting lost in the woods; of his stopping towards midnight at the house of General Morris, to inquire the way; and of Father Nash’s being present to take part in the solemn service. I find by referring to the Bishop’s Address to the Convention, that the ordination took place in Zion Church, Butternuts, (which had been consecrated two days before,) on Sunday, November 22, 1819. I have referred to this fact merely to show how early in life my interest in the venerable man concerning whom you inquire, began.

DANIEL NASH was born at Great Barrington, (then called Housatonic,) Mass., on the 28th of May, 1768. He was the youngest child of Jonathan Nash, and Anna Maria Spoor, formerly of Taghconic, N. Y. His grandfather, after whom he was named, was a younger son of Lieutenant Timothy Nash, born in 1676, who married Experience, daughter of John and Mary Clark, of Northampton, Mass. Jonathan Nash is represented as a worthy and respectable man, who held various offices in the town in which he lived, and was a magistrate for many years. Having nine children to support, he could do little more than train them up in honest and industrious habits, and teach them to love and serve God.

The subject of this sketch graduated at Yale College in 1785, and was for some time a member of the Congregational Church. Indeed, it is stated, on what I consider pretty good authority, that he was once a licensed preacher of that denomination, and studied under the celebrated Dr. Hopkins.

For nine years he was the Principal of an Academy, first at Pittsgrove, and afterwards at Swedesborough, in New Jersey.

[434] I have not been able to ascertain the precise time when he changed his ecclesiastical relations, but it was probably during the earlier part of his residence in New Jersey, where he had access to various works on Church government and polity. In after years, he was accustomed to say, when speaking of the difficulty of overcoming the effects of education and long habit in the case of those who had been born and bred Presbyterians, that “you may bray a Presbyterian, as with a pestle in a mortar, and you cannot get all his Presbyterianism out of him.” When met with the reply that he thus judged himself, he would answer, with great good-humour, “I was caught young.”

After becoming a communicant of the Episcopal Church, Mr. Nash found his thoughts turned once more towards the ministry, and in due time he was admitted as a candidate for Holy Orders, and pursued his studies under the direction of the Rev. John Croes, who, in 1815, was consecrated the first Bishop of New Jersey. He remained in Swedesborough until the spring of 1794, and then went back to the region of his birth, to take charge of an Academy at New Lebanon Springs, where a small congregation of Episcopalians had been gathered by the Rev. Daniel Burhans.

Mr. Nash continued here three years, teaching during the week, and officiating as a lay reader on Sundays. Meanwhile he formed the acquaintance of Miss Olive Lusk, a lady of benignant mind and placid manners, who became his wife in January, 1796. The way for their union seemed to have been prepared by the fact that their fathers had been intimate friends, while fellow members of the Legislature of Massachusetts, at an early day. The marriage proved to be a most happy one, and a long series of years were passed in quiet contentment and unruffled peace.

Dr. Burhans (whose honoured name cannot be mentioned without at least a passing expression of respect) had, about this period, made several missionary journeys through Otsego and the adjoining counties, and finding a field ripening for the harvest, and no one to reap it, proposed to his friend, Mr. Nash, that he should take Orders, and enter upon this work. This advice was followed. The school at New Lebanon Springs was closed, and the candidate for the holy ministry, burning with Apostolic zeal, hastened to New York, and, after sustaining most creditably the examination required, was ordained Deacon by Bishop Provoost, in St. George’s Chapel, on the 8th of February, 1797. He then turned his steps towards Otsego County, accompanied by the faithful wife, who was so well qualified to aid in his difficulties, and to cheer him in seasons of despondency and gloom.

“By his zeal and indefatigable labours,” (remarks Dr. Burhans, in a letter giving a rapid glance at Mr. Nash’s useful career,) “sanctioning every step by a sober, religious and godly life; being instant in season and out of season; going from house to house; preaching the word; baptizing households; teaching them all things necessary for the life that now is and that which is to come; catechising all, old and young, he did more in thirty-seven years in establishing and extending the Church, than any other clergyman ever did in the United States.”

But I must not anticipate the natural order of events.

The most graphic and beautiful sketch ever drawn of Father Nash, is from the pen of Bishop Chase. In 1799, he was making his earliest [434/435] missionary journey through the Southern and Western regions of New York, when he fell in with the devoted missionary of Otsego. He writes thus concerning him:—

“The writer does not pretend to more sensibility than falls to the lot of most men; but there was something in the meeting between Mr. Nash and himself of a peculiar character, and calculated to call forth whatever of moral sensibility he possessed. It was a meeting of two persons deeply convinced of the primitive and Apostolic foundation of the Church, to which, on account of its purity of doctrine and the Divine right of its ministry, they had fled from a chaos of confusion of other sects. They were both missionaries; though the name was not yet understood or appreciated. The one had given up all his hopes of more comfortable living in a well-stored country at the East, and had come to Otsego County to preach the Gospel, and build up the Church on Apostolic ground, with no assurance of a salary but such as he could glean from the cold soil of unrenewed nature, or pluck from the clusters of the few scions which he might engraft into the vine, Christ Jesus. He lived not in a tent, as the patriarchs did, surrounded with servants to tend his flocks, and to milk his kine, and ‘bring him butter in a lordly dish;’ but in a cabin built of unhewn logs, with scarcely a pane of glass to let in light sufficient to read his Bible: and even this cabin was not his own, nor was he permitted to live in one for a long time together. All this was witnessed by the other who came to see him, and helped him to carry his little articles of crockery, holding one handle of the basket, and Mr. Nash the other, and, as they walked the road, ‘talked of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God.’

“The writer cannot refrain from tears in bringing to mind the circumstances attending this interesting scene—that man who was afterwards most emphatically called ‘Father Nash,’ being the founder of the Church in Otsego County; who baptized great numbers of both adults and children, and thus was the spiritual father of so many of the family of Christ, and who spent all his life and strength in toiling for their spiritual benefit; was at this period so little regarded by the Church at large, and even by his neighbours, that he had not the means to move his substance from one cabin to another, but with his own hands, assisted only by his wife and small children, and a passing missionary. Well does the writer remember how the little one-roomed cabin looked, as he entered it—its rude door, hung on wooden hinges, creaking as they turned; how joyful that good man was that he had been mindful to fetch a few nails, which he had used in the other cabin, just left, for his comfort in this, now the receptacle of all his substance. These he drove into the logs with great judgment, choosing the place most appropriate for his hat, his coat, and other garments of himself and family. All this while his patient wife, who, directing his children to kindle the fire, prepared the food—for whom? shall it be said, a stranger? No; but for one who by sympathy felt himself more their brother than by the ties of nature, and who, by the example now set before him, learned a lesson of inexpressible use to him all the days of his subsequent life.”

Mr. Nash had thus far been doing the work of the ministry in its lowest office—that of a Deacon; and it was not until the autumn of 1801 that he [435/436] was admitted to the higher rank of the Priesthood. The reason why he delayed thus long before applying for this “good degree,” which he had so well “purchased” by his self-denying labours, was quite peculiar to himself.

I have already mentioned his ordination, as Deacon, by Bishop Provoost in 1797. The Bishop, who was in many respects an excellent man, distinguished in character and deportment as a true and courteous gentleman, and who was no doubt desirous of doing his best for the Church, was nevertheless of a quiet, easy disposition, not at all capable of sympathizing with so energetic and devoted a soldier as Mr. Nash. This missionary from the wilderness was welcomed most kindly by Bishop Provoost, and entertained at his house with generous hospitality; but Mr. Nash, with all his efforts, was not able to work him up to what he considered a due degree of earnestness and zeal respecting the missionary claims of the widespread new country, which constituted so large a part of the Diocese of New York.

The truth is, those were the days of sluggish indifference, when the Episcopal Church was dying of dignity; when the Bishops did not venture forth with their spotless lawn amongst the briars and brambles of the rural districts; and when deserving young men who had devoted years of toil to preparing for her ministry, must make a long pilgrimage on horseback to the city of New York to receive their credentials to preach the Gospel. Thank God, those sad times have passed away,—I trust never to return. Mr. Nash was so disconcerted by the reception which his enthusiastic expressions met with, that he secretly determined that he would not, if he could possibly help it, be ordained Priest by the same Bishop. He, accordingly, waited until Bishop Moore’s Consecration, in September, 1801; and the very next month we find Father Nash in New York, receiving Priest’s orders at his hands. Bishop Moore, in writing to General Morris of Butternuts, the next day, says,—”Yesterday I ordained Mr. Nash a Priest; and it afforded me no little satisfaction to reflect that the first act of my Episcopal function has been employed in elevating to the Priesthood so worthy a man.”

A little circumstance occurred on his return to Otsego, from this journey, which is too beautiful to be omitted. When he left home, preparations were in progress for building a church; and as he came back from the city, invested with the authority belonging to the second grade of the ministry, he discovered unexpectedly that the frame of the humble temple had been raised during his absence. Filled with gratitude, he stopped his horse, dismounted, and kneeling on the ground, gave devout thanks to God.

Every one who knows any thing of Mr. Nash, is acquainted with his faithfulness in the discharge of that most important pastoral duty,—catechising the young. It is said of him that so great was his devotion to this mode of instruction, that when, on his missionary travels, he met children on the road, belonging to his extensive and scattered charge, he would stop and examine them on the spot.

On a certain occasion, when a number of clergymen were assembled for some purpose, and conversation began to flag, one of them who was almost [436/437] too diligent a farmer for the good of the Church, entertained the company with an account of his agricultural operations, and among other things of his successful management of sheep. Father Nash, whose heart was entirely devoted to his Master’s work, felt very little interest in all this and when the enthusiastic farmer parson turned to him and asked—”What do you feed your lambs with, Mr. Nash?”—the worthy missionary could not resist the temptation of administering a mild rebuke, and answered—”With Catechism.”

It will perhaps interest your readers to know that Mr. Nash is the original “Parson Grant,” in Cooper’s famous romance, The Pioneers. This celebrated novelist thus speaks of his first service in Cooperstown, in his “Chronicles” of that place:—On the 10th day of September, 1800, Miss Cooper, the eldest daughter of Judge Cooper,” (and sister of the author,) “a young lady in her twenty-third year, was killed by a fall from a horse. Her Funeral Sermon was preached by the Rev. Daniel Nash, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and she was interred according to the rites of that Church, which were now performed, for the first time, in this village. Mr. Nash,—since so well known in his own Church for his Apostolic simplicity, under the name of Father Nash, was then a missionary in the county. From this time he began to extend his services to Cooperstown; and on the first day of January, 1811, a church was legally organized, under the title of Christ Church, Cooperstown. On the same day the Rev. Daniel Nash was chosen Rector, which office, through the delicacy of the clergyman who succeeded him in its duties, he informally held, down to the day of his death, in 1836.”

The venerable Bishop of New York, to whose kindness I am much indebted for materials for this communication, thus describes an interview which took place between Father Nash and Bishop Croes of New Jersey, when both had grown gray in the Lord’s service:—”I was walking in the street of New York City with Bishop Croes. Suddenly Mr. Nash came in sight; and I said to the Bishop,—’Here comes one of the oldest and most faithful missionaries of this Diocese.’ Just then Mr. Nash came up to us. I introduced them to each other, and was surprised to find them, each suddenly stopping, bracing himself for a good view, and most keenly eyeing the other. While I was wondering within myself what all this could mean, the explanation came out. It seems that many years before, while Bishop Croes was Rector of Trinity Church, Swedesborough, N. J., Mr. Nash was a teacher there,—a promising young man in whom Mr. Croes was much interested. This was the first time they had met for long years—both now old men. The recognition of each other was warm and affectionate. No wonder that the meeting made a deep impression on my mind.”

In a letter to a brother clergyman who had applied to Father Nash to prepare a History of the Churches he had been instrumental in establishing, he writes thus:—

“This evening is the first time I have collected courage enough to give an answer to your kind letter—kind, although you urge me to perform a task which I had resolved never to perform. St. Paul looked upon it as a foolish thing for him to boast of his labours and sufferings, his toils and afflictions. He did it, however, for the sake of affording his friends an [437/438] opportunity to vindicate his character. I have no such reason to influence me to write the History of the Church in this and the adjacent counties. To do it I must of course speak of myself; for I was the principal and only minister for several years. Happy years indeed—I never felt discouraged, neither did I feel alone. My wife was then living,—a noble-spirited, sensible woman, who, in the room of feeling discouraged, was the first to cheer me on in my arduous labours. The country was then comparatively a wilderness—often she gave me a child, and then got on the horse behind me with another in her arms, and thus we would go to our public worship for a number of miles. She excelled in music, and I understood it well—we were never confounded in that part of the service; and when the congregation did not well understand how to make the responses, she always did it in a solemn manner. Through all kinds of weather, whether the place was near or remote, I was uniformly at the place, a short time before the people began to assemble. This gave me an opportunity to speak kindly to them, and to enquire in respect to their families. They judged me to feel interested both for their temporal and spiritual welfare; and they did not judge amiss. Whenever a door was opened to catechise, in public or private houses, I did it.”

That this venerable minister was eminently useful was a fact of general notoriety. From 1804 to 1816, when, to use his own words,—“the country was a comparative wilderness,” and Episcopalians few and widely dispersed, he reported to the Convention four hundred and ninety-six baptisms. In 1817, he was thrown from his carriage, and so severely injured as to preclude active duties for most of the year. In 1825-26, he was sick much of the time, and soon afterwards was called to mourn the loss of his excellent companion, the partner of his toils, who died while on a visit to her brother-in-law, William Crandal, Esq., of Exeter, Otsego County, N. Y.

In his Report to the Convention of 1819, Father Nash begins to complain somewhat of the infirmities of age, although he continues active and energetic. Besides his labour among the white population, he held service, occasionally, for the Oneida Indians. He thus refers to these interesting people in his Report for 1823:—

“In the month of May, I visited the church at Oneida, and with pleasure can testify to the excellent order observed among the Indians. In no congregation, although I have seen many solemn assemblies, have I beheld such deep attention, such humble devotion. By the blessing of Divine Providence on the labours of the young gentleman who has been with them since the departure of Mr. Williams, they have been kept within the fold of the Church, although exertions have been made to lead them astray. Those exertions will, most probably, in a great measure, cease, as it has pleased God to awaken to a just sense of religion a number of the most respectable of the white inhabitants in the vicinity of the church. This pious congregation, though small, will have a tendency to secure the attachment of the Indians, were there any danger, which I think there is not, of having their affections alienated.

“The infirmities of age have prevented me from equalling in my labours, the labours of former years. The knowledge of this leaves a solemn impression on my mind that I must soon cease from those labours. [438/439] And oh, how little has been done in comparison with what might have been done! ‘It is an arduous thing,’ said a pious missionary, ‘to root out every affection to earthly things, so as to live for another world.’ I will add that it is an arduous thing to be entirely devoted to the service of God, our Saviour. That service is delightful, but seldom realized.”

In 1831, Mr. Nash had a severe illness at the house of his son-in-law, Mr. Munroe of Burlington; Otsego County, and for several months his recovery was despaired of. His vigorous constitution, however, rallied again, and by the following spring he was enabled, to some extent, to resume his ministerial duties.

The year before his death, (1835) we find the following brief Report from him in the Journal of the New York Convention:—

“I have, by the good providence of God, been enabled to preach nine discourses the year past—one in West Springfield, three in the town of Warren, Herkimer County, two in Richfield, one in New Lisbon, and one in Zion Church, Butternuts. I have, however, spent much time in visiting, in catechising children, in conversing and giving religious instruction in various families of our own people, and among those of other denominations, and even among those of no denomination, who oppose the sacred doctrines of the Church. Yet I have been kindly received and treated affectionately by all. A uniform request has been made that I would repeat my visits. I notice this, because that formerly it was very different. The Church, then, had to pass through evil report, and her ministers were esteemed as false teachers, which is now quite the reverse. For all his mercies may God’s holy name be praised.”

In the spring of 1836, the faithful old missionary again called at his daughter’s house at Burlington, complaining of indisposition, which soon developed itself in the form of severe illness. He continued to grow worse until the 4th of June, when he entered into his rest, in the seventy-third year of his age. His remains and those of his devoted wife are buried near the church in Cooperstown, beneath the shade of some venerable pines,—a spot which he had often expressed a wish might be his burial place. A beautiful monument now marks these honoured graves.

The Bishop of New York, in his Address to the Convention of 1836, thus speaks of the death of good Father Nash:—

“The venerable Daniel Nash, for nearly forty years a faithful missionary in the Counties of Otsego and Chenango, was, about four months since, taken to his rest. He received Deacon’s Orders from the first Bishop of the Diocese, and went immediately to the extensive field of labour in which, with a perseverance and fidelity wherein he set to his younger brethren a most worthy example, he continued to the last. The face of the country, the state of society, the congregations which he served, all underwent great changes; but still the good man was there, faithful to his post, true to his obligations, and eminently useful in his labours. The young loved him; the mature confided in him; the aged sought in his counsels and example right guidance in the short remainder of their pilgrimage. Parish after parish was built up on foundations laid by him. Younger brethren came in to relieve him of their more immediate charge, but still the good old man was there, labouring to the last among them; and long after physical [439/440] disability forbade any frequent public ministrations, he would go from house to house, gathering the inmates around the domestic altar, giving great heed to that important branch of pastoral duty which he always loved, and in which he was eminently successful,—catechising the children, and having some word of warning, encouragement, reproof, consolation, or correction for each, as each had need. It was so ordered, in the course of providence, that I was, soon after his decease, in the district of country which had so long been the scene of his pastoral labours; and truly gratified was I to witness that best of testimonies to the virtues of the Man, the Christian, and the Pastor, which was found in the full hearts, and the tender and reverential expressions, of the multitude who, to use the affectionate epithet with which for years they had delighted to know him, had been bereft of good old Father Nash.”

It is scarcely necessary that I should add anything in illustration of Mr. Nash’s character, to the preceding statements. He was not gifted with a strong mind, but it was original and unique, and although he had many weaknesses, he left an extraordinary impression upon all who knew him, of his sincerity, goodness, and devotedness. “His character” (as one of his contemporaries remarks) “strikingly exhibited the idea of the poet,—‘Half dull, half duty.’ There were one or two occasions on which he said things, which, since his death, have recurred to my memory with almost the force of inspiration.”

I am, dear Sir,

Very respectfully and truly yours,


—William B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit (New York: Robert Carter and Brothers, 1859). Digitized by Wayne Kempton and Richard J. Mammana

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The Morning Call, July 21, 1968

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America, Karlovci, and Moscow (1947)

By Ralph Montgomery Arkush, Legal Advisor to the Metropolitan Council of the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of North America
The Living Church (Milwaukee), April 27, 1947, pp. 15-16.

A BREAK in the administrative relations between the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of North America, headed by Metropolitan Theophilus, and four of his bishops has been officially announced by the Bishops’ Council and the Metropolitan Council of the Church. The hierarchs named are Archbishop Tikhon of Seattle and Western America, Archbishop Vitaly of Jersey City and Eastern America, Archbishop Ioasaph of Canada, and Bishop Ieronim of Detroit and Cleveland. (It is reported that recently Bishop Ieoronim was promoted to the frank of Archbishop by action of the Munich Synod, taken without the approval of Metropolitan Theophilus.) For the time being the Metropolitan is taking on himself the duties of the four former diocesans. Plans for filling the vacancies permanently are under way, an additional bishop having been recently consecrated [The Living Church, April 20th], and the consecration of a second bishop having been announced for May 11th.

The immediate cause of the rupture was the refusal of the four bishops to accept the decision of the All-American Sobor held at Cleveland on November, 26-29, 1946. That body was convened for the express purpose of giving all of the 300 or more parishes in the Church, through their clerical and lay delegates, the opportunity of expressing their views on the relationship between the North American Church and the Moscow Patriarchate. It was the first All-American Sobor that had been held since 1937. Every parish delegation was given time to present its views to the assembly. The Metropolitan presided. All of the bishops, including the four above named, were present and most of the bishops participated in the discussion. The pre-Sobor Committee, which was in an advantageous position to control the proceedings to some extent, was headed by Archbishop Vitaly. Considerable criticism was heard among the delegates of the tactical advantages of the position: for example, the leading exponents of the view that no connection should be had with the Patriarchate because of political conditions in Russia were given a preferred position on the agenda. The speeches made at the Sobor and the written declarations which had been adopted at parish meetings and were read to the Sobor reflected a wide divergence of views, from the bitter anti-Patriarchites to those who were for reunion with the Patriarch on any terms.

A separate but related question, which was of primary interest to the delegates, was that of the relationship between the American Church and the Russian Church abroad. On paper the American Church was a constituent part of the Russian Church abroad, the temporary statutes for the government of that body having been approved at the All-American Sobor held in New York in 1937. The connection, however, aroused little enthusiasm among the rank and file of the American clergy and laity.


The organization of the Russian Church abroad was an attempt to unite in one body all parts of the Russian Orthodox Church outside of the Soviet Union. When civil war separated the dioceses in the southern part of Russia from the central Church administration, headed by Patriarch Tikhon, a temporary administration was organized in Stavropol. After the defeat of the White armies, four bishops who had been members of the Stavropol and of the Crimean Church administrations fled to Constantinople where they created a Bishops’ Synod. Later they moved to Sremski Karlovci in Yugoslavia where they were taken under the protection of the Serbian Patriarch. At this time Europe was filled with Russian refugees and the effort of the Karlovci group to bring order into the ecclesiastical situation was justified. However, when the Karlovci Synod began sending bishops who attempted to set up a jurisdiction parallel to that of the Russian Orthodox Church then existing in America, the position of the Synod was indefensible. The Russian Orthodox Church of North America has had a continuous existence on this continent for over 150 years, first as a mission, then as a missionary diocese, then as a regular diocese, of the Russian Orthodox Church, and finally as an autonomous body. The administrative autonomy of the American Church was declared at an All-American Sobor held at Detroit in 1924, and was expressly based on the political conditions then existing in Russia. The language of the resolutions expressly preserved spiritual communion with the Patriarchate. This condition of autonomy was affirmed at the All-American Sobor held at Cleveland in 1934 when Metropolitan Theophilus was elected. The autonomous character of the American Church has been upheld by the civil courts and declared by statutes enacted by or now pending in the legislatures of a number of states.

The peace and unity of this self-governing body was broken by the arrival of four bishops sent by the Karlovci Synod, precisely the same four mentioned in the recent announcement. They succeeded in attracting to themselves or founding a very few parishes consisting mostly of the so-called “White” refugees. But, although attracting few followers, they constituted a source of confusion and unrest in the American jurisdiction. Accordingly Metropolitan Theophilus went to Karlovci in 1935 and agreed to the scheme of organization of the Russian Church abroad. This contemplated four metropolitan districts: North America, Western Europe, the Near East, and the Far East. The late Metropolitan Eulogius, who was to head the Western European district, also assented. His flock, however, refused to ratify, so that the district of Western Europe was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch. This defection and the comparative paucity of Russian Orthodox parishes in other parts of the world resulted in the North American district’s being by far the largest component of the Russian Church abroad. The temporary statutes provided for an annual council of all the bishops of the constituent districts and for a permanently sitting bishops’ synod consisting of one delegate from each district; the distant districts such as the North American and the Far Eastern might appoint as their delegates bishops residing in Europe. It was stipulated that the first president of the council and synod should be Metropolitan Anthony, formerly of Kiev and Galicia. At his death Metropolitan Anastasius became president.

Upon the signing of these temporary statutes the four Karlovcian bishops in North America submitted to the jurisdiction of Metropolitan Theophilus, so that he, at least apparently, reaped the reward of his trip to Karlovci. The connection with the Karlovci Synod, however, was irksome and eventually, during World War II, became absurd. By reason of military or political conditions the existence of the Near Eastern and Far Eastern districts, or at any rate the connection of the Synod with those districts, was practically eliminated. A very few parishes in Western Europe, South America, and other parts of the world recognized the Karlovci Synod. Consequently, in practical effect, this Synod had become a mere paper superstructure on top of the North American Church. All sensible reasons for the continuance of this administrative connection had terminated. Nevertheless Metropolitan Theophilus loyally went through the form of submitting to Metropolitan Anastasius and his Synod, which eventually moved to Munich, the minutes of meetings of the Council of Bishops, the promotion of bishops to the rank of archbishop, etc. One phase of the connection with the Karlovci-Munich Synod and the North American Church which caused almost universal resentment among the Church membership was the alleged political activity of members of the Synod or its staff. In the early days of the Synod prior to the organization of the Russian Church abroad various manifestos issued from Karlovci indicating the hope for the restoration of the czarist regime. At a later stage it is alleged that persons connected with the Synod uttered expressions of a pro-Hitler character although this charge has been denied. (At least it is certain that Archbishop Vitaly on his own responsibility joined in a telegram to President Roosevelt urging that the United States refrain from giving military assistance to the Soviet Union after the attack by Hitler.) The charges that the Karlovci-Munich Synod and its adherents have unjustifiably embroiled themselves in political activity have not endeared them more to the American Church membership.


Finally, when Archbishop Alexy of Yaroslav and Rostov came to this country in 1945-1946 he made it clear that a sine qua non of restoration of spiritual communion between the American Church and the Moscow Patriarchate was the termination of the relationship with Metropolitan Anastasius. Whatever differences of opinion there were at the Cleveland Sobor last November on the exact nature of the relationship to the Patriarchate, there was only a minute fraction of the delegates who insisted on the continuance of a connection with Metropolitan Anastasius. The vote of 187 to 61 which finally recorded the action of the Sobor is not a mathematical indication of the division of views on the question, since the resolution on which the vote was taken combined the questions of both the Patriarchate and the Russian Church abroad. Several resolutions in different form had been submitted to the assembly and many of those who voted against the resolution actually adopted did so in the expectation that if the resolution was defeated the prevailing sentiment of the meeting could be expressed in a different manner. For several days prior to the taking of the vote an attempt was made by the committee on resolutions and many of the leading delegates to prepare a resolution which would bring to an end the absurd situation in which the Munich tail was wagging the North American dog, but at the same time would provide a framework of Church government in which all of the Russian Church bodies outside of the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence would normally fit. Such a scheme was particularly suitable at the moment when many of the DP’s and other Russian Orthodox people in Germany and Austria were being ministered to by bishops and priests of the Munich jurisdiction. A form of resolution to this end was reported by the committee on resolutions but never came to a vote.

The resolution adopted requested the Patriarch to continue as spiritual head of the American Church conditioned on the continuance of its administrative autonomy and terminated the administrative connection between the American Church and the Synod of the Russian Church abroad [The Living Church, December Sth]. Archbishop Vitaly and the three other Karlovcian bishops had and took the opportunity of influencing the delegates to vote against this resolution. They raised no question as to the legal or canonical power of the Sobor to pass on the two questions covered by the resolution until the results of the secret ballot had been announced. Only then did Archbishop Vitaly make a spirited protest.

The main body of Church membership, particularly the younger people whose influence is being more and more felt, and whose interest is indispensable to the life of the Church, are insistent that matters of vital Church policy are to be passed on in a constitutional and democratic fashion. The four bishops who have refused to concur in the decision of an assembly in the preparation for which and in the deliberations of which they actively participated have thereby repudiated the principle of constitutional and democratic church government. Their withdrawal from the Church will doubtless result in greater harmony in Church councils. It is believed that not more than 5 or 6 parishes at the most will follow them.

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Pennsylvania Dutch Dispute (New York Times, 1930)

To the Editor of The New York Times:

A letter from me concerning the dialect of the Pennsylvania Germans, or Pennsylvania “Dutch,” appeared in THE TIMES of July 7. This letter was rather extensively reprinted, particularly in the newspapers of Pennsylvania, the German-American newspapers, and a number of newspapers in Germany. But there are many additional facts that will appeal to these large circles of readers, especially those pertaining to the characteristics of this language and to several important works in the field which were not mentioned in my previous article.

Although, as stated in my other article, Horne’s Pennsylvania German Manual is, so far as I can learn, the only popular general manual that has gone out of print, there are a number of other important works on certain phases of the dialect that should receive serious attention. I refer especially to Lambert’s Dictionary of the Pennsylvania German Dialect and Fogel’s Proverbs of the Pennsylvania Germans. Both works were published in the annual volumes of the Pennsylvania German Society, whose present address is Norristown, Pa., and whose activities have recently been resumed more energetically under the executive and financial leadership of Ralph Beaver Strassburger of that city. Lambert’s Dictionary is in Volume XXX, published in 1924; Fogel’s work is in Volume XXXVI, which was issued only a few weeks ago.

Lambert’s work gives a very comprehensive, and, with one deplorable exception, correct system of spelling and pronunciation, and a list of about 16,000 dialect words with the definitions and derivations. There are some regrettable omissions, for instance “henn” for German “haben” (English “to have), one of the most distinctive words of the dialect. Nevertheless, the work is in the main a highly scholarly one and indispensable to every advanced student of the subject. Fogel’s work gives a very large number of the old and familiar sayings of these people, together with the English and standard German renditions and equivalents. It is of course delightful reading. This writer’s spelling and pronunciation, like Lambert’s, are correct in the main but are wrong in at least one extremely important respect.

The error committed by both writers is in the pronunciation of g in the middle of words. For all words they change it to j—the equivalent of the English y, instead of only in a few words—morje or marje; “morgen,” morning, and several other words, as was done by Horne, who was evidently a careful observer and spoke the dialect all his life.

The medial g sound varies somewhat in different localities, but in the main it has always been as follows: German g changes to dialect j, English y, in most words in which it follows a, especially in merje or marje, aerjets and naerjets; German morgen, irgend and nirgend; English morning, anywhere, and nowhere. It weakens and approaches but does not reach j after the front vocals, German e, i, ie, ei, ä, and ai. Examples: Rejer, leje (German Regen, legen, English rain, lay). The strong German ch sound remains after the back vowels, a, o, u, and au. Examples: Dialect Waage, Aage, froge; for German Wagen, Augen, fragen, and English wagon, eyes, to ask. The hard g sound, as in English, or almost the hard sound, occurs in words with double g, or words ending in el; Naeg’l, for nail, &c.

Professor Lambert says in his introduction, and correctly I contend, that the Pennsylvania dialect in the main is homogeneous, and not several distinct dialects, but he errs in saying it most closely resembles that of the Westrich section of the Pfalz, the portion west of the Haardt Mountains, which extend north and south, just west of Dürkheim and Neustadt.

Professor Fogel, in his introduction, reiterates a view he has held for years that there are two distinct dialects: the Palatine in Berks, Lehigh and adjoining Pennsylvania counties, and the Swiss Alemannic in Lancaster County and vicinity. If this were true, he should have presented two sets of proverbs in his work. But he says the quest for Alemannic proverbs gave unsatisfactory results, and he almost implies there are no Alemannic proverbs. May I suggest there was a very compelling reason for finding no such proverbs in Lancaster County? There are none; there is no Alemannic dialect there, save a very few surviving words. There is only one Pennsylvania German dialect, except for minor variations.

My own people lived in Lancaster County or sprang from there. The dialect we used differs only slightly from that further north. Moreover, a questionnaire I recently circulated in Lancaster County confirms the view that almost no Swiss dialect survivals remain. More than that, the Swiss vernacular was probably never used much in Pennsylvania. One reason was that the pioneers of Lancaster County, while natives of Switzerland, came by way of the Palatinate and sojourned there for several years; another reason is they were always outnumbered by the Palatines. Moreover, there was probably a recognition that the Pfalz dialect is inherently simpler, more euphonious, and in many other respects preferable to the Swiss.

Ludington, Mich. Dec. 30, 1929.

The New York Times, January 5, 1930

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“The Upper Places:” Nazareth, Gnadenthal and Christian’s Spring (1929)

“The Upper Places:” Nazareth, Gnadenthal and Christian’s Spring
By Elizabeth L. Myers
Easton: Northampton County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1929.

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Pennsylvania German Dialect Pseudonyms

Beam, C. Richard15 Feb 192526 Jan 2018Es Bischli-Gnippli
Dieffenbach, Victor26 Oct 188226 Jun 1965Der Oldt Bauer
Druckenbrod, Richard29 May 192927 Oct 2003Pit Schweffelbrenner
Erb, William H.30 Apr 187031 Jan 1940Der Gus
Frey, John William23 Jul 191621 Aug 1989Der Glee Bill
Graeff, Arthur D.22 Sep 189928 Mar 1969Der Dichter vun de Dolpehock, Der ewich Yeeger
Grumbine, Ezra L.1 Feb 184516 Feb 1923Wendell Kitzmiller
Grumbine, Lee L.25 Jul 185818 Aug 1904Old Schulmashter
Harter, Thomas H.28 May 185431 May 1933Gottlieb Boonastiel
Landis, Henry K.186527 Dec 1955Der Gross Henner
Miller, Harvey M.27 Sep 187117 Jun 1939Solly Hulsbuck
Rauch, Edward H.18268 Sep 1902Pit Schweffelbrenner fum Scheifeltown
Reitnauer, Clarence12 Nov 19005 Apr 1989Der Shdivvel Knecht
Rittinger, John A.16 Feb 185529 Jul 1915Joe Klotzkopp
Snyder, G. Gilbert15 Jun 189717 Nov 1956Die Wunnernaus
Swope, Pierce E.15 Aug 18849 Dec 1968Kaspar Hufnagel
Troxell, William S.11 Jun 189310 Aug 1957Pumpernickel Bill
Schuler, Henry A.12 Jul 185014 Jan 1908Der Kalennermann

This is a dynamic list open to corrections and additions. Please write to with either.

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Toward a Uniate Rite, by J.E. Bazille-Corbin (1952)

Toward a Uniate Rite: Being the Text of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon, Closely Rendered into English, Rubricated and Presented in a Usable Form


            In the subsequent pages will be found the ORDINARY and CANON of the Western Mass, translated from the Latin of the later printed SARUM missals, in which we possess the VENERABLE RITE OF SAINT OSMUND in its final and mature form.

            The translation adheres word for word, as closely as the English language permits, to the Latin original.

            A like version of the current ROMAN RITE, including the full PROPRIA, made its appearance some years back and is published by Messrs. Knott (of Brook Street, Holborn) under the title of “The English Missal”. Its purpose is employment in conjunction with (or in part, or wholly as a substitute for) the Holy Communion service of the Book of Common Prayer of 1662, which remains the authorized altar-liturgy of the Church of England.

            Messrs. Knott’s “English Missal” has run into several editions and would appear to be extensively used by the Catholic-minded clergy of the Anglican Church in this country, though with little or scant sanction from their Episcopate.

            It has been thought, not only by myself but by not a few eminent churchmen and liturgiologists whom I have consulted, that a translation of the SARUM Ordinary and Canon (possibly as the precursor of a complete Sarum Missal in English) with rubrical direction as ample and detailed as those in Messrs. Knott’s “English Missal”, might well prove of value at the present time, both as the essential part of a practical altar-book and to the student, be he cleric or laic. To this end therefore it is now put out.

            Apart from the “Anglo-Catholic “ party, which whether or no it be actually realised by all its component members, is really a centripetal movement of the separated part towards “ the Rock “ whence in the sixteenth century it was ruthlessly “hewn”, there is a spate of other small bodies, many of them of extreme numerical tininess, some indeed possessing hardly more than a paper existence save in the minds of their particular hierarch, yet all, it would seem, groping their way towards the Divine plan of a United Christendom and all insistently claiming to possess Sacred Orders of valid origin. From enquiries that I have been at pains to make, I have discovered that no one of these bodies claims to be a “church” in the schismatic sense in which that noun is often used, but rather considers itself an autocephalous rite within the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church of God.

            The largest perhaps of these communions, with a world-basis of organization, is known as “The Catholic Apostolic Church”—(it has no connection with the similarly entitled “Irvingite” body)—or “The Catholicate of the West”.

            The original channel of its Orders comes from the Syrian-Jacobite patriarchate of Antioch—but, by a series of subsequent Consecrations, all received “sub conditione”, its present Patriarch, His Sacred Beatitude Mar Georgius I, has consolidated in his own person no fewer than eight distinct “lines” of valid episcopal succession, in addition to (as he describes it, “for what they may be worth”), the Anglican and Nonjuring successions.

            “The Catholicate of the West” has moreover been granted legal incorporation by the government of India and is thus a State-chartered body.

… We can hardly evade the conclusion, if facts be faced up to and unmistakable tendencies examined, that all these communions, including the entire Anglican body, in their recoil from the impact with today’s atheistic communism, indifferentism, and religious bankruptcy, are moving, often quite unconsciously, or (may it not be said?) are gently being drawn by the Divine Hand, towards that rock-like bulwark of the Christian Faith and one visible fold, the historic See of Peter.

            And having arrived at the gates of spiritual Rome, on what terms may we suppose, will they be received? Doubtless, for perfect             œcumenical assurance, conditional validation of their Orders, or perhaps Ordination “de novo” may be required, and then, if they should not be desirous of being absorbed into the secular rite of the West, they might conceivably be allowed to continue their existence as one or more UNIATE BODIES in full communion with the Holy See.

… (It should here be noted that no Uniate Church within the papal communion uses the Roman secular Liturgy.

            Each has its own traditional rite and ceremonial.

            Each preserves intact its internal organization and discipline.

            Thus the several Uniate Rites of the East find their expression either in the vernacular tongue, or, more generally, in an archaic traditional form of the vernacular.)

            Granted that the facts and probabilities as above set out, be correct, it were surely convenient that the rite, once more widely current than any other in this country, should be available today in English and in a practical, i.e., a usable dress.

            Up to the present there has existed no edition (free from extraneous interpolations) in the English tongue, of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon, so rubricated and arranged, as to be conveniently read at the altar.

            . . . In the pages that follow, the rendering of the Latin given in “The English Missal” has, after a careful comparison, been closely followed wherever the text of the Sarum and Roman liturgies are identical.

            This has been done in no spirit of plagiarism or uncritical “philoanglicanism” but deliberately, with intent that the present version may avoid any pointless verbal variations from the valuable work published by Messrs. Knott, variations such as must necessarily irritate and confuse a priest who had grown familiar with the closely literal, yet rhythmical and ear-pleasing, and in my opinion (which has been arrived at after a careful comparison therewith of numerous other translations into English of the Roman rite), unquestionably the best version so far produced.

            In my responsibility for the text and rubrics that follow I therefore desire straightway to record my grateful indebtedness both to the Editor and the Publishers of “The English Missal”.

            … A Low Mass, in its simplest form, that is one whereat the celebrant is assisted by a single server, is all that is here contemplated. No provision has been made for the ministering of Holy Communion during or outside the Mass, and it is certainly doubtful whether, it was, prior to the Reformation, normally administered, as is now frequently done in the Western Church, outside the service.

            If then this version of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon be used, Holy Communion can be given very much along the lines of the rite prescribed for that purpose in the Roman Missal (see Messrs. Knott’s The English Missal). The Sarum “Confessio”, etc., being substituted for the Roman “Confiteor”, etc., and the threefold “Domine non sum dignus . . .”, which does not occur in the Sarum liturgy, omitted.

            [Holy Communion will be received of course, in one kind only and the Blessed Sacrament placed direct in the recipient’s mouth whose tongue at the time of reception should be somewhat extended and rested upon the lower lip.

            The “houselling cloth”, stretching the length of the Communion rail will be used, the communicant raising it, with both hands placed beneath, to just below his chin. If the intending communicants be ten (or under ten), in number, the necessary small wafers will have been set in a pile on the corporal for consecration to the left of the priest’s Host, having, at the Offertory or earlier, been placed on the paten with the Host.

            If more be required, a standing pyx (or ciborium) will be used. (A second chalice, covered with a pall, can take the place, if necessary, of a standing pyx).

            During the first part of the service this will be set just behind the corporal after the latter has been spread. It will be moved on to the corporal, to its right hand side, and uncovered when the priest offers the Host and the chalice together at the Offertory and covered immediately afterwards.

            The priest will again uncover the pyx just before he begins the words:—“Who the day before He suffered . . .” and will cover it again immediately before he uncovers the chalice and says:—“Likewise after supper . . . ”

            It is more consonant with ancient practice to place the small wafers for the communicants on the paten, or in the standing pyx, at the same time as the paten and chalice are themselves prepared; but, if the number of intending communicants be not easily ascertainable before the service starts, it may be necessary for them to be taken from the wafer-box immediately after the priest has read the Offertory verse.]

            . . Should there arise, subsequent to the publication of the present work, a demand for a “directorium” for the celebration of a High Mass on similar lines, this could be met later by a supplementary compendium of the necessary instructions. Meanwhile the Sarum Ordinary and Canon as here below set out can be privately bound up and used in conjunction with the “Propria” as given in “The English Missal”, until such time as a translation in full of the Sarum Proper be forthcoming, together with the Kalendar, in which there are naturally fewer feasts than find place in the Roman rite of today. The number of commemorations could then be brought up to date as authority might direct.


            As is generally known the old liturgical texts were but sparsely rubricated in comparison with those of today, even after the introduction of printing. The pre-Reformation rites moreover, both here and abroad, were drawn up in contemplation of the norm of Eucharistic celebration, i.e., they dealt exclusively with what was to be said or done at a High Mass.

            Whence then, it might be asked, have been collected all the detailed directions that appear in this English version? Let it not be thought for a moment that any one of them is the fruit of a lively imagination, or has been capriciously composed. To a large extent they are the result of a study of the many small handbooks or tractates widely current in the fourteenth and two subsequent centuries both here and in northern France (and indeed elsewhere in Europe also), which were put out by practised liturgiologists to instruct and assist the priest in an accurate performance of his daily craft—the celebration of a Low Mass. Those here drawn upon, with the exception of the Dutch tract DAT BOEXKEN VANDER MISSEN (Antwerp 1507), are collected in the late Dr. J. Wickham Legg’s “Tracts on the Mass”, London 1904, q.v. Other works consulted are:—

            Thomas Becon: Works. Vol. III “The Displaying of the Popish Mass”. P.257.

            Becon, one of Cranmer’s chaplains, is known chiefly by his scurrilous Protestant writings. And unpleasant though it be to quote from such a source, he may be relied on as giving us, from his own point of view, an accurate picture of the ceremonies of Low Mass with which he was familiar in his Catholic days. He wrote, while in exile, during Queen Mary’s reign.

            “The Layfolks’ Mass Book”. Early English Text Society, London 1879.

            “The Clerk’s Book of 1549”. J. Wickham Legg. Henry Bradshaw Society, London 1903.

            John Myrc—“Instructions for Parish Priests”. Early English Text Society, London 1868.

            L. Duchesne—“Origines du culte chrétien”, Paris 1889, P.195.

            “The Use of Sarum”. Vol. 1, P.62, etc. W. H. Frere, Cambridge 1898.

“Studies in Ceremonial”. P.236, etc. V. Staley. Oxford 1901.

            “The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England”. 3rd Edition. W. Maskell. Oxford 1882.

            “The Sarum Missal in English”. Part I. F. E. Warren. London 1911.

            “Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis”. Vols. I & II. Surtees Society 1874.

            “Claude de Vert”. “Explication des ceremonies de l’Eglise”. Vol. III. P.2, etc. Ed. 1713. (Where special mention is made of the rite of Salisbury.)

            “Pierre le Brun”. “Explication de la Messe”. Vols. III. P.111, etc. Ed. 1726 (quoting Micrologus who wrote circa. 1090.)

            Dr. Rock. (Ed. Hart and Frere), London 1905. “Church of our Fathers”. Vol. I. pp. 477-8 and elsewhere.

            De Molèon. “Voyages Liturgiques”. P. 87, etc. Paris 1718.

Further to the above, notes have been made and facts collected over a period of some thirty-six years from sources too numerous to particularize. For example, in 1913, I was in correspondence with the late Canon Vernon Staley (then Rector of Ickford, Oxfordshire) over a wide range of liturgical subjects and we discussed the possibility of a revision of the “Prayer Book” rite. Early in 1915 letters passed between myself and the late Canon F. E. Warren, Rector of Bardwell, Bury S. Edmunds: in connection with certain obscurities in the Holy Week ceremonies, not completely elucidated in his translation (in two volumes) of the Sarum Missal.

            In 1920 letters passed between myself and Dr. Francis C. Eeles (who was then engaged at the Victoria and Albert Museum), as to Thomas Becon’s reference to the “Commixture” and the position of the “Angus Dei” in relation thereto.

            To the last named, and to the memories of the two former, as well as to all those who have helped me personally, and who have generously put the result of their studies and investigations at my disposal, I desire to record my thanks and indebtedness, also to those whose books I have consulted over more than half a life-time, and to many friends whose encouragement has made the publication of this present work a possibility.

            … In such respect was the ancient Use of Sarum held, both in this country and abroad, that it is possible to collect from a number of writers quotations from, and comments on, the manner in which the ceremonies accompanying the “Rite of S. Osmund” were performed, not so much in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury, where there was ample space and equipment for their rendering in the fullest and most dignified manner, but rather as with such modifications and adaptations which the then exigencies of the average parish church necessitated.

            It was the measure of prestige that the Use of Sarum had acquired, long prior to the issue of the first English “Book of Common Prayer”, that ultimately caused the Convocations of the Realm to accept it as the standard to which all diocesan and local practices should ideally conform. There seems little doubt that, at least in the southern province, the rites proper to the Religious Orders (then, doomed to but a few years of further existence) excepted, considerable attention was being given to put this “recommendation”—if it were nothing stronger—into practical effect.

            It is idle to speculate as to what might have been the liturgical result, or how different the course of Church life and history could have been in England, if Henry VII’s elder son Arthur, married to a Princess of Spain, had succeeded his father, or if Queen Mary I had had a son by her husband King Philip.


Runwell S. Mary,


Feast of the Assumption of our Lady, 1951.

The Order for the Celebration of Low Mass


according to the

Use of the Illustrious Church

of Salisbury


rendered into English (and rubricated in detail, the directions taken from those in the printed editions of the Sarum Missal of several dates, from the Sarum Consuetudinary and Customary, and from “Alphabetum Sacerdotum” and such other handbooks and tractates as were in common use by the clergy of England in the times before the Reformation). 



Rector of Runwell S. Mary, Essex.

The Ordinary of the Mass

The priest shall be careful that his hands are washed before he celebrates Holy Mass.

            He may, if he choose,

(i) prepare both the paten and the chalice in the sacristy, or other accustomed place, before he assumes the sacred vestments, blessing the water in the cruet, (which water shall be renewed daily), in the manner below prescribed. The paten, with the host covered by the pall, shall then be set upon the chalice, and the burse, containing the purificator and corporal, shall be laid upon the paten, Or

(ii) He may carry in the vessels empty, (the purificator being within the chalice-bowl, and the burse, containing the pall and corporal resting on the paten which he has placed on top of the chalice,) and prepare them after concluding the psalm Judica me and when he has reached the altar, Or

(iii) the chalice alone may be prepared when he has arrived at the altar, the host having already laid on the paten and covered with the pall.

            The priest will vest in the sacristy, if there be one. Otherwise he may vest in a side-chapel, where the vestments have been laid out for that purpose, or, even at the altar which he is to celebrate, which will be prepared beforehand: the vestments being arranged in order on the north part of the altar itself; the paten and the chalice containing the purificator, together with the burse, containing the corporal and pall, in the centre; the missal, on its cushion or desk, at the south part of the altar; the cruets and the bread-box, the bowl and the towel for the hand-washing at the Offertory, on the piscina-shelf, credence, or other convenient place nearby.

            As he puts on the sacred vestments the priest will say the hymn Veni Creator Spiritusand that which follows: 

            “Come Holy Ghost, our souls inspire

And lighten with celestial fire,

Thou the annointing Spirit art

            Who dost thy sevenfold gifts impart.

Thy blessed unction from above

            Its comfort, life and fire of love;

Enable with perpetual light

            The dullness of our blinded sight.

Anoint and cheer our soiled face

            With the abundance of thy grace.

Keep far our foes, give peace at home

            Where thou art guide, no ill can come.

Teach us to know the Father, Son,

            And Thee, of both to be but One;

That through the ages all along,

            This may be our endless song.

Praise to thine eternal merit

            Father, Son and Holy Spirit.”

            V. “Send forth thy Spirit and thy shall be made

R. And Thou shalt renew the face of the earth.”

            “God unto whom all hearts be open, all desires known and from whom no secret lies hid: Cleanse the thoughts of our heart by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit that we may be worthy perfectly to love Thee and fitly to praise Thee.

            Through Christ our lord. Amen.”

            As he takes the chasuble the priest shall begin the antiphon:

“I will go unto the altar of God.”

            and shall continue, or else the clerk shall answer:

            “Even unto the God of my joy and gladness.”

Carrying the vessels, his left hand holding the chalice, the paten resting upon it, his right hand laid lightly upon the burse, preceded by the clerk, the priest shall go to the altar continuing privately, or, by alternate verses, aloud with the clerk:—

1. Give sentence with me, O God, and defend my cause against the ungodly people: O deliver me from the deceitful and wicked man.

2. For thou art the God of my strength, why hash thou put me from thee: And why go I so heavily, while the enemy oppresseth me?

3. O send out thy light and thy truth, that they may lead me: And bring me unto thy holy hill to thy dwelling.

4. And that I may go unto the altar of God, even unto the God of my joy and gladness: And upon the harp will I give thanks unto thee, O God, my God.

5. Why art thou so heavy, O my soul: And why art thou so disquieted within me?

6. O put thy trust in God, for I will yet give him thanks: Which is the help of my countenance and my God.

7. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost:

8. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

            AntiphonI will go unto the Altar of God: Even unto the God of my joy and gladness.

            From Passion Sunday until Maundy Thursday inclusive, in Masses of the Season, the Psalm “Give sentence with me,” is omitted, the antiphon being, however, said once in full. This is done likewise in all Masses for the Departed.

            Having arrived at the altar, the priest shall make the accustomed reverence and ascend the steps, or step, to the middle of the altar. Setting down the vessels, a little to his left he will take the corporal from the burse and spread it on the altar in the midst and place the vessels in the centre thereof. The burse he will set upright, its opening downwards at the back part of the altar somewhat to his left, or, if it be more convenient, to his right, or may lean it against the reredos.

            [N.B. The front edge of the corporal shall reach to the front edge of the altar but shall not overhang the same.]   

            Unless the host be already in the paten and covered by the pall this shall be done now, the clerk ministering to the priest throughout.

            Then, if the chalice have not been made, the priest shall proceed to prepare it as follows:

            He shall take the chalice in his left hand, wipe the inside of the bowl with the purificator, set the purificator down on the altar to the right of the corporal leaving it folded in three and lying horizontally and parallel to the edge of the altar, shall take the cruet of wine in his right hand from the clerk and shall pour a small quantity of wine into the chalice.

            The clerk shall take back the wine-cruet and shall offer the priest the cruet of water saying: Bless.

            The priest shall replyThe Lord. and shall bless the water in the cruet with the sign of the Cross saying:

By Him be it blest, from whose side came forth Blood and Water. +

In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Taking the cruet, the priest shall add to the wine in the chalice a few drops of water.

            He shall then set the chalice in the centre of the corporal, cover it with the paten containing the host which in turn is covered with the pall (and, if he choose, with the burse as well), continuing privately as below:  

            Meanwhile turning by his right he shall go to the book on its cushion, or desk, on the south end of the altar and shall open it at the Proper of the Mass which he is to say.

            Kyrie eleison: Christe eleison: Kyrie eleison.

            Our Father which (or who) are in Heaven: Hallowed be thy Name: Thy Kingdom come: Thy will be done in earth as it is in Heaven.

            Give us this day our daily bread: And forgive us our trespasses:

            As we forgive them that trespass against us:—

            Hail Mary, full of grace: The Lord is with thee: Blessed art thou among women: And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.

            Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of death:—

            Having turned from the book by his left and gone to the midst of the altar, the priest shall lower his amice (together with his hood), using both hands, on to his neck and turning by his right shall come down to the pavement, i.e., to below the lowest step, turn again by his right so as to stand facing the centre of the altar, where, with his hands joined (and the clerk kneeling on his left), he shall say in a loud voice:

            And lead us not into temptation.

            R. But deliver us from evil.

            Confess unto the Lord, for he is gracious.

            R. For his mercy endureth for ever.

            Inclining forward the priest shall continue:

            I confess to God, to blessed Mary, to all the Saints and to thee, that I have sinned exceedingly, in thought, word and deed, through my fault. I beg holy Mary, all the saints of God, and thee, to pray for me.

            The clerk shall answer:

            Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee all thy sins, deliver thee from every evil, preserve and strengthen thee in goodness, and bring thee to everlasting life.

            The priest shall answer. Amen and shall stand upright. The clerk shall repeat the Confession:

            I confess to God, to blessed Mary, to all the saints, and to thee, that I have sinned exceedingly, in thought, word and deed, through my fault. I beg Holy Mary, all the saints of God, and thee, to pray for me.

            The priest shall answer, as above:

            Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee all thy sins, deliver thee from every evil, preserve and strengthen thee in goodness, and bring thee to everlasting life

            R. Amen.

            And the priest shall add: (both he and the clerk signing themselves with the sign of the Cross meanwhile):

            The Almighty and merciful Lord grant unto us + absolution and remission of all our sins, time for true repentance and amendment of life and the grace and comfort of the Holy Ghost.

            R. Amen.

            V. + Our help is in the Name of the Lord.

            R. Who hath made heaven and earth.

            V. Blessed be the Name of the Lord.

R. Henceforth, world without end.

            PriestLet us pray.    

            As he says Let us pray the priest goes up to the centre of the altar, his hands joined and in a loud voice, with body inclined continues:

            Take away from us, O Lord, all our iniquities, that with pure minds we may be worthy to enter into the Holy of Holies. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Disjoining his hands and laying them somewhat apart with palms down on the altar he will kiss the altar, raise himself and make the sign of the Cross upon his face, saying:

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Then will the priest go to the south end of the altar and read the “Office” (or “Introit” as it is more commonly called) with his hands joined. This is the manner in which the “Office” is said.

            The Office and the Psalm are first said, and the Office is repeated. Then is said Glory be to the Father . . . etc. After which the Office is repeated for the third time. But from Passion Sunday until Maundy Thursday inclusive, in Masses of its season, “Glory be . . . ” etc., is omitted, and the Office is not repeated a third time.

            Then in the same place, with his hands joined, the priest shall say the ninefold Kyrie alternately with the clerk.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

            R. Kyrie eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

R. Christe eleison.

            V. Christe eleison.

            R. Christe eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

R. Kyrie eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

            After the Kyrie said, the priest, turning by his left goes to the middle of the altar and there begins (if it is to be said), Gloria in excelsis, extending and then joining his hands and inclining somewhat.

            Glory be to God on high:

After the above words said he shall betake himself to the south end of the altar and continue with joined hands.

            And in earth peace to men of goodwill. We praise thee. We bless thee. We worship thee. We glorify thee. We give thanks to thee for thy great glory. O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty. O Lord, the only-begotten Son Jesu Christ, O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou, that sitteth at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us. For thou only art holy. Thou only art the Lord. Thou only O, Jesu Christ, with the Holy Ghost + art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

            Note that Gloria in excelsis is not said except on feast days and on such Sundays as are outside the season of Advent. Nor is it said from Septuagesima until Easter Even either on Sundays or when the Mass is of the season. Nor is it said when, at any time, the Sunday Mass is resumed during the week.

            Note that whenever the priest shall turn to salute the people with the words The Lord be with you, he shall first kiss the altar in the midst, and turn by the right, extending, slightly raising and then joining his hands, and when he kisses the altar he shall lay his hands somewhat apart, the palms downwards, thereon.

            Having made the sign of the cross upon his face at the end of Gloria in excelsis, the priest will return to the centre of the altar, and then turn to the people, and say:

            The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

Having gone again to the south end and turned to the altar, he says:

Let us pray

and the Collect or Collects as the occasion may require.

            When more than one Collect is to be said, the first Collect and the last (even if there be only two to be said), alone, shall have the full ending, and before the second Callect Let us pray, is to be repeated. The like rule is observed with the Secrets and with the Postcommunions, which at all times must correspond, both in number and source with the Collects.

The conclusion, commencing Through … (or in the instances in which the prayer is addressed to God the Son, Who livest … ) is always said with the hands joined, that is with the tips of the fingers of each hand touching.

            Then shall follow the Epistle or Lesson, which the priest will read in the same place facing due east, the book lying on its desk (or cushion) and the priest placing the palms of his hands on the pages.

            Which read, he shall straightway read the Gradual and Alleluiatic Verse, or the Tract and the Sequenceas may be appointed.

            Then, turning by his left, the priest shall go to the centre of the altar (the Missal and its desk meanwhile having been carried by the Clerk to the Gospel end, and set there angle-wise, so that the Gospel may be read towards the North. If necessary the priest may move the book thither himself), and raising with both hands, the pall, together with the paten (on which lies the host), from the top of the chalice, shall glance within the chalice to make sure that he has not omitted to prepare the same, and then shall immediately replace the paten, the pall thereon. Then, with joined hands, he shall say, in a low voice:

            Bid, Sir, a blessing.

and shall himself reply:

            The Lord be in my heart, and in my mouth, that I may proclaim the holy Gospel of God. + In the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Here he shall sign himself from forehead to breast and then, turning by the left, go to the north part of the altar, where facing, as far as possible due north, he shall read the Gospel with hands joined. First, however, without turning to the people, or disjoining his hands, he says:

            The Lord be with you

R. And with thy spirit.

            Making the sign of the Cross first upon the open book, secondly upon his forehead, and thirdly on his breast, with his right thumb, he says:

            + The beginning (or the continuation) of the + Holy Gospel according to +

            R. + Glory be to thee, O Lord.

            No response is made at the end of the Gospel, but the priest, having finished reading, kisses the book, which on its desk or cushion is moved again nearer to the centre of the altar, but still on the priest’s left hand. Turning by his right, the priest moves to the centre of the altar.

            Standing in the midst of the altar the priest shall begin the Creed if it is to be said). The Creed is said on all Sundays without exception throughout the year, and on a number of other days as appointed in the “Propria”.

            Extending, raising and then joining his hands, he shall say:

I believe in one God—

the rest is said with hands joined. He inclines his head as he says God and again at the holy Name Jesus and again at worshipped. He makes a profound reverence, or a genuflexion on his right knee, at And was incarnate until after he has said And was made man. At And the life of the world to come it is customary that he sign himself from the forehead to the breast. 

the Father almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father, before all worlds. God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, Begotten not made; Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made. Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, AND WAS INCARNATE BY THE HOLY GHOST OF THE VIRGIN MARY, AND WAS MADE MAN. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried. And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven. And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of Life. Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified. Who spoke by the prophets. And I believe One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead. And the life of the world to come. Amen.

            Then shall the priest kiss the altar in the midst, in the manner described before the Collect, and turning likewise to the people shall say:

            The Lord be with you.

R. And with thy spirit.

            Having turned back to the altar, without moving from the centre and with hands joined, he shall say: Let us pray, and shall read the Offertory.

            Which read, he shall remove the pall from off the paten and place it to his right on the altar and with both hands shall raise the chalice, the paten resting on it, to the height of his breast and shall say:

            Receive, O Holy Trinity this Oblation, which I, an unworthy sinner, offer in thine honour, and in that of Blessed Mary, and of all thy saints: for my sins and offences: for the salvation of the living: and for the repose of all the faithful departed.

            Then tracing out the sign of the Cross, over the corporal, with the vessels as he sets them down again thereon, he shall say:      

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen. May this new Sacrifice be accepted of almighty God.

            Which done, he takes the paten from the chalice, slips the host off on to the centre of the front third of the corporal, immediately in front of the chalice, kisses the paten and places it to his right upon the altar so that it is half underneath the spread corporal and half beneath the purificator. He then covers the chalice with the pall.

            Then he goes to the south end of the altar and washes his thumbs and forefinger, the clerk ministering to him with the water (the cruet may be used for this purpose, but a separate jug with unblessed water is to be preferred), the basin and the finger-cloth (or towel).

            As the clerk pours the water over his thumbs and forefingers, or, as he dries his hands on the finger-cloth, the priest says:

            Cleanse me O Lord from all pollutions of mind and of body, that being clean, I may be able to fulfil the holy work of the Lord.

            Then having returned to the centre of the altar and standing facing east, with head inclined and hands joined, and resting upon the altar, he shall say:

            In a humble spirit and with a contrite heart, may we be accepted of thee, O Lord, and so let our Sacrifice be offered in thy sight, that it may be accepted of thee this day, and be well-pleasing unto thee, O Lord God.

            Here he shall kiss the corporal to the right of the Oblation, and make the sign of the cross over the same and then upon himself, saying: + In the Name of the Father, and of the + Son, and the Holy Ghost. Amen.         

            Then shall the priest kiss the corporal, as above, and turn towards the people, extending and then joining his hands and saying aloud:

            Pray brethren (and sisters) continuing in a low voice for me, that this, my Sacrifice and yours likewise, may be accepted of the Lord our God.         

            In a low voice the clerk shall answer; (or the priest himself shall say)The grace of the Holy Ghost illumine thy (my) heart and thy (my) lips, and the Lord graciously receive this sacrifice of praise at thy (my) hands, for our sins and offences.       

            Instead of turning back to the altar, by his left in the usual manner, the priest shall here turn by his right (that is shall complete the circle) and continuing in a low voice shall say Let us pray and the Secret (or Secrets, one or more according to the number and order of the Collects) with hands extended.

            The Secret, or the first Secret (if there be more than one to be said) shall have the full ending, and the priest shall repeat Let us pray before the second, if two or more are to be said.

            At the end of the last he shall raise his voice saying the concluding words aloud: Throughout all ages, world without end. R. Amen.

            Then shall follow the Preface.

            [In all Masses for the Dead when the body is present, and when Mass is said for the dead on the thirtieth day after the burial, and on all anniversaries of the departed, but not on All Souls’ day nor at any other Masses for the dead, immediately after he has washed his fingers, the priest standing in the centre of the altar and turned towards the altar, with joined hands, shall say aloud:

            Sacrifices and prayers we offer unto thee, O Lord.

            The clerk shall answer, or else the priest himself shall reply:

            Do thou receive them for the souls of those, whose memory we this day recall. Make them, O Lord, to pass from death unto life.

            While this response is being made the priest shall say the prayer In a humble spirit . . . etc., as above.

            After + In the name of the Father and of the + Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen, the priest shall turn to the people and raising his voice somewhat shall say: Pray brethren (and sisters) continuing in a lower voice for the faithful departed.

            R. Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord and let light perpetual shine upon them, which, of old, thou didst promise unto Abraham and his seed.

            If the foregoing response be not made by the clerk, the priest himself shall make it.

Then shall follow Let us pray and the Secret (or Secrets).]   

            With his hands still joined, and without turning to the people, the priest shall say: The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Here he shall disjoin his hands and raise them somewhat, as he says:

            Lift up your hearts

            R. We lift them up unto the Lord.

joining his hands and inclining his head the priest shall say:

            Let us give thanks unto our Lord God.

R. It is meet and right so to do.

            Here follows the Common (or Ferial) Preface, which is said on those occasions to which no Proper Preface is assigned. The priest extends his hands and says: 

            It is truly meet and just, right and salutary that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks unto thee, O Lord holy, Father almighty, everlasting God, Through Christ our Lord; Through whom the Angels praise, the Dominations adore, the Powers fear thy majesty, the heavens and the heavenly Virtues and the blessed Seraphim together, sing thy praise with exultation; with whom, we beseech thee, bid that our voices also be admitted, with suppliant thanksgiving saying:

            Raising his arms somewhat, joining his hands and inclining his head the priest shall continue:

            Holy; Holy; Holy; Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts); Heaven and earth are full of thy glory.

Hosanna in the highest. + Blessed is He, that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            And the priest shall sign himself on the face at Blessed is He 

            Note that on all feasts of our Lady, if the Church be dedicated in her honour, and throughout the octaves of the same when the Mass is of the feast, and at all Votive Masses celebrated in honour of our Lady, the words are to be said as follows:

            + Blessed is the Son of Mary, that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            At the words Holy, Holy, Holythe clerk shall ring the bell thrice.


1. Preface of the NATIVITY of the Lord.

            The preface of the Nativity is said at all Masses of Christmas Day and daily up to and including the Feast of the Circumcision: at all Masses of Our Lady from Christmas to the Feast of the Purification. On the Feast of the Purification: at all Votive Masses of Corpus Xti; and on Corpus Xti: and throughout the octave of Corpus Xti; when Mass is said of that feast.

… everlasting God. Because by the mystery of the Incarnate Word, the new light of thy glory hath shone upon the eyes of our mind: that while we acknowledge Him to be God visibly, we may be caught up by Him to the love of things invisible. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

2. Preface of the EPIPHANY of our Lord.

            The preface of the Epiphany is said on the day of the Epiphany, and on the seven days following

… everlasting God. Because that when thine only-begotten Son manifestly appeared in substance of our flesh, he restored us in the new light of his immortality. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … , etc. (as in the Common Preface).

3. Preface of ASH-WEDNESDAY.

            The preface of Ash-Wednesday is said daily on week-days during Lent (except on any feast which has a proper preface assigned to it): but on the Sundays in Lent and on Maundy Thursday the Ferial Preface is said.

… everlasting God. Who by bodily fasting dost overcome vice, dost raise the mind, and dost bestow virtue and rewards, through Christ our Lord. Through whom the angels praise … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

4. Preface of EASTER.

            The preface of Easter is said on Easter-Even, Easter Day, daily throughout the Octave, on all Sundays up to Ascension Day and on the weekdays that follow them whenever the Sunday Mass is resumed.

… everlasting God. And thee indeed at all times, but chiefly on this day (or at this time), should we praise more gloriously, when: Christ our Passover is sacrificed. For He is the very Lamb which hath taken away the sins of the World. Who, by his death, has destroyed death, and by his rising again hath restored to us life. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy …. etc. (as in the Common Preface)

5. Preface of the ASCENSION.

            The preface of the Ascension is said on the feast of the Ascension, and daily throughout the Octave.

… everlasting God. Through Christ our Lord: Who, after his Resurrection, manifestly appeared to all his disciples, and, in their sight, was taken up into heaven, that he might make us partakers of his Godhead. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

6. Preface of PENTECOST (Whitsun).

            The preface of Pentecost is said on Whitsunday and throughout the week, and at all Masses of God the Holy Ghost.

… everlasting God. Through Christ our Lord: Who, ascending above all heavens and sitting at thy right-hand, poured forth (this day) the promised Holy Ghost upon the sons of adoption. Wherefore, with exceeding joy, the whole world rejoiceth. The heavenly virtues and the angelic Powers together sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

7. Preface of the HOLY TRINITY.

            The preface of the Holy Trinity is said on Trinity Sunday and on all the Sundays following up to Advent, when the Mass is of the Sunday, and at all Masses of the Holy Trinity throughout the year, but it is not said when the Mass of the Sunday is resumed during the week.

… everlasting God: who, with thine only-begotten Son and the Holy Ghost, are one God, one Lord, not one only Person, but three Persons in one Substance. For that which, by thy revelation we believe of thy glory, the same we understand of thy Son, and the same of the Holy Ghost, without any difference or inequality: that in the confession of the true and everlasting Godhead, distinction in Person, unity in Essence, and equality in Majesty, may be adored: Which angels and archangels, the cherubim and seraphim praise, who cease not to cry with one voice, saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).


            The preface of the Apostles and Evangelists is said on all feasts of the Apostles and of the Evangelists, and throughout the Octaves of the apostles Peter and Paul and Andrew, except only on the feast of Saint John, Apostle and Evangelist, within the Octave of Christmas. It is said, however, on the Octave of that feast, and on his feast on May 6th. It is also said at a Votive Mass of any Apostle or Evangelist, except within the Octave of a feast to which a Proper Preface is assigned.

… everlasting God; and humbly to entreat thee, that thou, the everlasting Shepherd, wouldst not forsake thy flock, but, through thy blessed Apostles, keep it by thy continual protection, that it may be governed by those same rulers, whom thou host appointed to preside as vicars of thy work and shepherds of the same. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … , etc. (as in the Common Preface).

9. Preface of the HOLY CROSS.

            The preface of the Holy Cross is said on both feasts of the Holy Cross (that is on the Invention May 3rd, and on the Exultation, September 14th) and on all commemorations thereof throughout the year. [It is also said according to the Use of York and certain other contemporary English and many continental rites, from Passion Sunday daily until Maundy Thursday inclusive.]

… everlasting God: Who, by the tree of the Cross, didst give salvation unto mankind, that, whence death arose, thence life might rise again: and that he who by a tree overcame, might also by a tree be overcome: Through Christ our Lord. Through whom the angels praise . . . . etc. (as in the Common Preface).

10. Preface of the BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.

            The preface of the Blessed Virgin Mary is said on all her feasts, except that of her Purification (when the Preface of Christmas is said). It is also said throughout the Octaves of her Assumption and of her Nativity, and in all Masses celebrated in her honour, except from Christmas Day till the feast of her Purification.

… everlasting God: And that on the

            Conception (December 8).

            Annunciation (March 25).

            Assumption (August 15).

            Nativity (September 8).

            Visitation (July 2).

            or in Veneration (at her daily Masses).

of the blessed and glorious ever-Virgin Mary, with exulting minds, we should praise, bless and proclaim Thee: In that, by the overshadowing of the Holy Ghost, she conceived thine only-begotten Son, and the glory of her maidenhood yet abiding, shed forth upon this world the light eternal, Jesus Christ our Lord: Through whom the angels praise … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

            [Note that there are ten Proper Prefaces (according to the use of Sarum), and one Ferial (or Common) Preface, and that every preface is in the same form as far as the words . . . everlasting God, and again from the words Holy, Holy, Holy to the end.

            Note also that when the first part of the preface ends with the words … Christ, our Lord, it is always continued as follows … Through whom the Angels praise, the Dominations adore, the Powers fear thy majesty, the heavens and the heavenly Virtues and the blessed Seraphim together, sing thy praise with exultation: With whom, we beseech thee, bid that our voices also be admitted with suppliant thanksgiving saying: Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts): Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. + Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord, Hosanna in the highest.

            Those Prefaces, the first part of which do not conclude with the words … Christ our Lord (that is the preface of the Nativity of our Lord, the Epiphany, Easter, the Ascension, the Apostles and Evangelists) end thus:

            And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts): Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest + Blessed is He that comest in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            The preface of Pentecost and of the Most Holy Trinity are irregular in form as far as the words, Holy, Holy, Holy …]    

            Straitway when he has said + Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highestthe priest shall begin:


With joined hands and body inclined he shall say:

Therefore most merciful Father, through Jesus Christ, thy son, our Lord, we humbly pray and beseech thee,Here laying his hands palms downwards one on each side of the Corporal, he shall stoop and kiss the altar to the right of the Oblations, and raising himself shall sign thrice over the host and chalice together, with his right hand, the left remaining on the altar, and shall say:

            that thou accept and bless these + gifts, these offerings, these + holy and unspotted sacrifices,

extending his hands he shall continue:

which first we offer unto thee for thy Holy Catholic Church, that thou wouldst vouchsafe to keep it in peace, to guard, unite, and govern it throughout the whole world, together with thy servant our pope … our bishop … and our king … and all the orthodox and those who profess the Catholic and Apostolic Faith.


            (Here he shall recall the living for whom he desires particularly to pray.) Remember, O Lord, thy servants and handmaids … and … He joins his hands and prays silently for them. Then extending his hands he continues and all here present, whose faith and devotion unto thee are known and manifest: for whom we offer unto thee, or who themselves offer unto thee, this sacrifice of praise, for themselves and for all to whom they are bound, for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of their salvation and safety: and who render their vows unto thee, the eternal, living and true God.


*Joining in communion and venerating the memory first of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ He inclines his head and joins his hands as he says these last words, extending them again as he continues:—

            *On the feast of the Nativity and on the seven days following is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day (or most sacred night) whereon the undefiled virginity of blessed Mary brought forth a Saviour for this world: and venerating moreover the memory first of the same glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the feast of the Epiphany and throughout the Octave is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day, whereon thine only-begotten Son, co-eternal with thee in glory, visibly appeared in the body in the verity of our flesh: and venerating moreover the memory, first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On Maundy Thursday is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day whereon our Lord Jesus Christ was betrayed for us, and venerating moreover the memory, first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On Easter-Even and until the Octave of Easter inclusive is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day (or night) of the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh; and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the Feast of the Ascension and throughout the Octave is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day whereon our Lord Jesus Christ, thine only-begotten Son set at the right hand of thy glory, the substance of our frailty united to himself: and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the Feast of Pentecost, and daily during the week, is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day of Pentecost whereon the Holy Ghost appeared to the Apostles in tongues of fire: and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

* As also of thy blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus: Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and of all thy saints: by whose merits and prayers, grant that in all things we may be defended with the help of thy protection.

            He joins his handsThrough the same Christ our Lord. Amen. Here resting his hands, palms downwards, on the Corporal, one on either side of the Oblations he regards the Sacrifice with great veneration and says:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, we beseech thee, O Lord graciously to accept and order our days in peace, and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            On Easter-day and until the Saturday in Easter week inclusive, and from Whitsunday and until the following Saturday inclusive according to the Use of Sarum (but, in many other contemporary Uses, from Easter-Even until Saturday in Easter-week and from the Vigil of Whitsun until the Saturday following, all these days inclusive), is said:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, which we offer unto thee on behalf of those also whom thou host vouchsafed to regenerate by water and the Holy Ghost, granting them remission of their sins, we beseech thee, O Lord, graciously to accept, and order our days in peace and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his handsThrough Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Which Oblationetc….

            On Maundy Thursday is said:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, which we offer unto thee because of the day on which our Lord Jesus Christ delivered unto his disciples the celebration of the mysteries of his Body and Blood, we beseech thee, O Lord, graciously to accept and order our days in peace and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Which Oblationetc….

            Continuing with hands joined he says:

            Which Oblation, do thou, O God, we beseech thee, vouchsafe in all things to make He lays his left hand on the corporal and signs with his right thrice over the Oblation + blessed, + approved, + ratified, reasonable and acceptable, that unto us it may become He signs over the host + the Body and over the chalice and + Blood of thy most dearly beloved Son He joins his hands and bows slightly our Lord Jesus Christ.

Then he wipes his forefingers and thumbs on the front corners of the corporal, sayingWho, on the day before he suffered

            On Maundy Thursday after suffered he shall add for our salvation and for that of all men, to wit to-day

            He takes the host between his thumbs and forefingers, saying took bread into his holy and venerable hands,glancing upwards he continues and lifting up his eyes to heaven to thee, God, his almighty Fatherinclining his head slightly he says giving thanks to theethen holding the host in his left hand with thumb and forefinger he shall bless it with his right saying he + blessedthen he shall strike the host lightly with the edge of his right hand (but not so as to break it) saying breakThen holding it with both hands as before, he shall say: and gave to his disciples, saying, Take and eat ye all of this.

            Here leaning somewhat forward and resting his forearms on the altar, he says in one breath and without any pause


            Having so said and still holding the Host, his wrists now resting on the altar, the priest genuflects and adores, rises from his knee, raises the Host above his forehead (still holding it as before) so that it may be seen of the people. Then he reverently replaces it on the Corporal before the chalice, making with it the form of a cross as he sets it down. He again genuflects and adores.

            Keeping the thumb and forefinger of each hand joined and taking care to so keep them, as far as possible, until after the Ablution of his fingers, he at once uncovers the chalice, moving the pall therefrom, between the fore and middle fingers of his right hand, and laying it a little to his right. He then rubs his thumbs and forefingers lightly over the bowl of the chalice in case of crumbs (which action he repeats as often as he has occasion to uncover the chalice after handling the Host) and says: Likewise after supper,

            He takes the chalice in both hands if possible between the fore and middle finger of both hands only, using the right hand above the knop and the left below it, and says: taking also this excellent chalice into his holy and venerable hands, He bows his headalso giving thanks to thee, Steadying the chalice with his left hand, he makes the sign of the cross over it with his right, replacing his right hand on the stem of the chalice immediately afterwards, sayingHe + blessed and gave to his disciples saying: Leaning his forearms on the altar, holding the chalice in both hands (above and below the knop), and slightly raised above the corporal, he pronounces the words of consecration in one breath:


            He sets down the Chalice upon the corporal behind the Host, and resting his hands upon the Corporal, one at each side, genuflects and adores. Rising he raises the Chalice, his right hand on the stem, above the knop, and his left supporting the foot (at least breast-high, but preferably) well above his head, so that it may be seen of the people, and as he elevates it, he saysAs oft as ye do these things ye shall do them in remembrance of me.

            [The clerk shall ring the bell thrice at the elevation of the Sacred Host and thrice at the elevation of the Chalice: the first time as the priest genuflects, the second time as he elevates and the third time as he genuflects again.]         

            The priest sets down the Chalice on the corporal, covers it with the pall, genuflects and adores as before, rises, and extending his arms on either side of his body in the position of the Crucified, the fingers extended (except for the thumbs and forefingers), but not spread, he says:

            Wherefore, O Lord, we also thy servants, together with thy holy people, mindful of the blessed Passion of the same Christ, thy Son, our Lord, as also his Resurrection from hell and glorious Ascension into heaven, do offer unto thine excellent Majesty of thine own gifts and bounty;

            He joins his hands, lays his left on the corporal or on the foot of the Chalice and signs thrice with his right over the Host and Chalice together, sayingA pure + Host, a holy + Host, a spotless + Host, the Holy + Bread Here he signs once over the Hostof eternal lifeand once over the Chalice and the + Chalice of everlasting salvation.

            Extending his hands before his breast he continues:

            Upon which vouchsafe to look with a favourable and gracious countenance and to accept them, as thou didst vouchsafe to accept the gifts of thy just servant Abel, and the sacrifice of our patriarch Abraham, and the holy sacrifice, the spotless host, which thy high-priest Melchisedech offered unto thee.

            Bowing profoundly over the altar his hands laid, the right over the left crossed upon his breast the fingers (except for the thumbs and forefingers which are kept joined) extended and laid lattice-wise across one another, he says:

            We humbly beseech thee, almighty God, command thou these to be brought by the hands of thy holy Angel to thine Altar on high, in the presence of thy divine Majesty, that as many of usLaying his hands on the Corporal, one on each side, he kisses the altar to the right of the Sacrifice as by the partaking of this altar, shall receive the most sacred With his left hand still resting on the Corporal, or on the foot of the Chalice, he signs with his right once over the Host and once over the Chalice, saying: + Body and + Blood of thy SonHe signs himself on the face, continuing: may be fulfilled with all heavenly benediction and grace; He joins his hands Through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen.


            Remember, also, O Lord, thy servants and handmaids … and … who have gone before us with the sign of faith and rest in the sleep of peace.

            He joins his hands and prays awhile in silence for those whom he intends to pray, then extending his hands he proceeds: To them, O Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, we beseech thee to grant a place of refreshment, light and peace.

            He bows slightly and joins his hands:

            Through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen.

            Laying his left hand either on the altar, or on his breast, he strikes his breast, with his right hand, once, saying raising his voice somewhat:

            To us sinners also, Extending his hands, he proceeds secretly: trusting in the multitude of thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part and fellowship with thy holy Apostles and Martyrs: with John, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicitas, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and with all thy saints: within whose fellowship we beseech thee admit us, not weighing our merit, but granting us forgiveness. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord, by whom, O Lord, all these good things, thou dost ever create,

            Laying his left hand on the Corporal, he signs with his right thrice over the Host and Chalice together, saying dost + sanctify, + quicken, + bless, and bestow upon us. Uncovering the Chalice with his right hand, he sets down the pall on the altar to his right, genuflects, rises, takes the Host with his right thumb and forefinger and steadying the Chalice at the knop, or at its foot with his left hand, signs five times with the Host over the Chalice, in the manner following:—

firstly a large cross over the Chalice (the four arms of the cross extending beyond the bowl), secondly from lip to lip of the Chalice, thirdly a cross made wholly within the bowl of the Chalice, fourthly a cross similar to the first, fifthly one made in front of the Chalice, saying:

            Through + him, and with + him, and in + him, is unto thee, God the Father + almighty, in the unity of the Holy + GhostRaising the Chalice slightly above the Corporal between the fore and middle fingers (if possible) of his left hand and holding the Host above it with his right, he says: All honour and gloryHe replaces the Host on the Corporal, rubs his thumbs and forefingers lightly over the bowl of the Chalice, covers the Chalice with the pall, genuflects, rises and with his hands resting upon the Corporal, one on each side, says, aloud:

            Throughout all ages, world without end.

            R. Amen.

            Let us pray, Commanded by saving precepts and taught by divine institution, we are bold to say:

            Raising his hands from the altar and extending them, he says:

            Our Father which (or who) art in heaven. Hallowed be thy Name, Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us.

            And lead us not into temptation.

            R. But deliver us from evil.

            The priest says secretly: Amen.

            The priest takes the paten from beneath the Corporal holding it between his right fore and middle fingers, kisses it, places it first before his left eye, then before his right eye, makes a large sign of the cross with it in front of his face, slides it under the Host on the Corporal, continuing, meanwhile, in a low voice,

            Deliver us, O Lord, we beseech thee, from all evils, past, present, and to come, and at the intercession of the blessed and glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and thy blessed apostles Peter and Paul and Andrew with all thy saints, favourably grant peace in our days, that by the help of thine availing mercy, we may ever be free from sin and safe from all distress.

            Here he uncovers the Chalice, genuflects, takes up the Host with his right thumb and forefinger, holds it over the Chalice bowl with the thumbs and forefingers of both hands and breaks it into three parts.

            At the first fraction, which divides the Host down the centre into two halves, he says:

            Through the same Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord.

            He transfers the half from his right hand to his left, and holding both portions between the left thumb and forefingers, he breaks off a third portion from one of them with his right hand, and holding this third portion (which is called the “particle”) in his right hand, and the other two portions in his left (keeping both hands well over the bowl of the Chalice all the while in case of crumbs), he says:

            Who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God. He raises his voice and continues aloud:— 

            Throughout all ages, world without end.

R. Amen.

            With the particle he makes three signs of the Cross over the Chalice sayingThe peace + of the Lord be + alway with + you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Holding the three portions of the Host in both hands as before, he says:

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Have mercy upon us.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Have mercy upon us.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Grant us peace.

            Making the sign of the cross over the Chalice with the particle he places it within the Chalice saying in a low voice:

May this most holy commixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto me, and to all who receive it, health of mind and body and a wholesome preparation for attaining worthily unto eternal life. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

But in Masses for the departed—“Agnus Dei” is said thus:

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

                        Grant them rest.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

            Grant them rest.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

            Grant them rest eternal.

            And the Commixture is then made as above.

            [If the Pax be given the priest now sets down upon the paten the other two portions of the Host, rubs his forefingers and thumbs over the bowl of the Chalice, covers the Chalice with the pall, genuflects and says the prayer following:

            O Lord, Holy Father, almighty and everlasting God, Grant that I so worthily receive this most holy Body and Blood of thy Son our Lord’, Jesus, Christ, that thereby I be found fit to obtain remission of all my sins, to be filled with thy Holy Spirit, and to have thy peace: Because thou art God alone and there is none else beside thee, whose kingdom remaineth glorious, world without end. Amen.

            Then the priest shall kiss the corporal to the right of the paten, the top of the Chalice and afterwards the clerk sayingPeace be to thee and to the Church of God.

R. And with thy spirit.

            After the “Pax” has been given (or while the people are receiving it) the priest shall take up both portions of the Host from the paten and holding them between his thumbs and forefingers over the paten shall ‘say the following three prayers before he communicates himself.]

            And if the “Pax” be not given, the priest having, as above directed, placed the particle within the Chalice, having covered the Chalice with the pall using his right forefinger and middle finger as to do, and genuflected, says the three prayers following before he communicates himself, holding, as he does, both portions of the Host between his two thumbs and forefingers over the paten, and saying:

            O God the Father, fount and source of all goodness, who, moved by pity, didst will that thine only begotten Son, for our sakes should descend to this lower world and take the flesh which I, an unworthy and most wretched sinner, hold here in my hands: Here he shall incline his head somewhat I adore thee: I glorify thee: with the whole intent of my heart and mind I praise thee: and I pray that thou desert not us thy servants, but blot out our sins, that so we may avail to serve thee the only living and true God with a pure heart and a chaste body. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

            O Lord Jesu Christ, who, by the will of the Father and the co-operation of the Holy Ghost, hast, through thy death, given life unto the world, deliver me by this thy most sacred Body and Blood, from all mine iniquities and from every evil: and make me ever to obey thy commandments and suffer me not to be for ever separated from thee O Saviour of the world. Who with the same God the Father and the same Holy Ghost livest and reignest God, throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.

            Let not the sacrament of thy Body and Blood, O Lord Jesu Christ which, though unworthy, I receive, be unto me for judgment and condemnation, but, of thy goodness, may it avail for the salvation of my body and soul. Amen.

            Here inclining profoundly the priest shall address the Host saying in a low tone:

            Hail evermore, Most Holy Flesh of Christ: To me, before and above all things, the sum of delight.

[And the clerk shall ring the bell thrice.]

            The priest inclining his head over the paten shall receive both parts of the Host which he has meanwhile been holding with the thumbs and forefingers of his hands. As he receives he shall make the sign of the cross with the Host before his face and say:

            The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto me a sinner the Way and the Life + In the Name of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            The priest shall then uncover the Chalice, genuflect, rise (and rub his thumbs and forefingers over it, in case of crumbs) and shall take the paten between the first and middle finger of his right hand and run the edge of the paten lightly over that portion of the Corporal whereon the Host has lain, using the tip of his left forefinger to collect on the paten such small crumbs or fragments, if any there be, of the Host from the Corporal. Then having rubbed his left thumb and forefinger together over the paten, he shall transfer the paten to his left hand, holding it between the first and middle finger, and with his right thumb shall wipe any crumbs from the paten into the Chalice and replace the paten in front of the Chalice on the Corporal, Then, with hands joined before his breast, he shall say, with great devotion to the Blood:

            Hail evermore, Celestial Draught. To me, before and above all things, the sum of delight.

            Then he shall receive the contents of the Chalice together with the particle therein, making first the sign of the cross with the Chalice before his face, and saying:    

            The Body and Blood of our Lord Jesu Christ avail to me a sinner for an everlasting remedy unto life eternal. + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Having set down the Chalice, the priest shall join his hands and remain for a brief space in meditation on the most Holy Sacrament: during which space, according to the Use of Sarum, the prayer following (which is not found in the contemporary uses or in that of the Roman rite), is appointed to be said:

            I give thanks unto thee, O Lord, holy Father, almighty everlasting God, who hast refreshed me with the Most Holy Body and Blood of thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and I pray that this sacrament of our salvation, which I an unworthy sinner have received, may not bring to me judgment or condemnation in accordance with my deserts, but may profit my body and soul unto life eternal. Amen.

            Then holding the Chalice between the fore and middle finger of his right hand, he shall extend, to the full, his right arm towards the Epistle end of the altar and the clerk shall approach and pour a little wine into the Chalice which the priest shall then drink. Then shall the priest say:

            What we have taken with our mouth, O Lord, may we receive with a pure heart: and, from a temporal gift, be it made unto us an eternal remedy.

            Then turning by his right the priest shall go towards the Epistle end of the altar, holding the Chalice so that his thumbs and forefingers are joined over the Chalice-bowl, and taking the purificator with him. Resting the Chalice on the altar and laying the purificator across the foot of the Chalice on that side nearest to himself, with his thumbs and forefingers held over the Chalice-bowl, he shall cause the clerk to pour, first a little wine and then rather more water over his thumbs and forefingers into the Chalice. Setting down the Chalice, he shall dry his hands on the purificator and then taking up the Chalice and turning by his left, he shall go to the centre of the altar and receive the ablution revolving the Chalice completely as he drinks from it, so that the whole interior is cleansed.

            He shall then set down the Chalice somewhat off the corporal, dry his lips with the purificator and shall say:

            May this Communion, O Lord, cleanse us from sin, and make us to be partakers of the heavenly healing.

            Then he shall spread the purificator over the bowl of the Chalice, or shall fold it and place it within the bowl of the Chalice, set the paten thereon, cover the paten with the pall, fold the corporal, place it inside the burse, and lay the burse on top of the vessels, arranging them in the midst of the altar.  

            [While the priest dries the Chalice the clerk shall carry the missal, on its desk or cushion, to the Epistle end of the altar, placing it there as at the beginning of the Mass.]

            Having arranged the vessels as above directed, the priest with joined hands shall incline before the cross on the altar and shall say:

            Let us adore the sign of the Cross, whereby we have received the Sacrament of Salvation.

            Having said which in the midst of the altar, the priest shall cross to the Epistle end and shall read the Communion. At the conclusion of which he shall make the sign of the cross upon his face.

            Then turning by his left he shall go to the midst of the altar, kiss it and turning by his right to the people, raising slightly and disjoining, and then joining his hands, shall salute them in the usual manner, saying:

            The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Turning back by his left he shall go to the book and read the Postcommunion (one or more, according to the number and order of the Collects and Secrets). At the conclusion of the last Postcommunion he shall make the sign of the cross upon his face and turning again to the people, in the manner above described, shall say:

            The Lord be with you.

R. And with thy spirit.

            Ite missa est.

or (if Gloria in excelsis have not been said at the beginning of the Mass)

            Let us bless the Lord.

R. Thanks be to God.

            But in Masses for the Departed, instead of Ite Missa est, or Let us bless the Lord, there is said:

            May they rest in peace.

            R. Amen.

            Which said the priest turns back to the altar, and standing in the midst, with joined hands, says secretly:

            May the obedient performance of my bounden duty be pleasing unto thee, O Holy Trinity, and grant that the Sacrifice which I unworthy have offered in the sight of thy Majesty may be acceptable to thee, and through thy mercy obtain thy gracious favour for me and for all for whom I have offered it up. Who livest and reignest God throughout all ages, World without end. Amen.

            Then raising his voice the priest shall say aloud:

            May almighty God bless you,

            laying his hands upon the altar, palms downwards, he shall kiss the altar and turn by his right to the people and shall bless them, saying:

            + The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

R. Amen.

            Turning back to the altar by the right (i.e., completing the circle as he did when saying the “Orate Fratres et Sorores” before the Secret), he shall kiss the altar as before and sign himself on the face, saying secretly:

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Then with both hands, he shall draw up his amice together with his hood over his head, take the vessels, turn by his right, come down from the altar and (with the clerk) make a reverence and then (preceded by the clerk) return to the place where he vested before the Mass.

            While returning from the altar the priest shall say in a low voice the first fourteen verses of Saint John’s Gospel at the conclusion of which the response is made:

            Thanks be to God.

            N.B. This last Gospelaccording to the use of Sarum, is invariably recited at the conclusion of Mass, except only after the third Mass of the Nativity of our Lord, when, in its place, the Gospel from the Feast of the Annunciation of our Lady is said.

            And here it should be noted that when any priest is required to celebrate Holy Mass more than once in a day, he shall not receive either Ablution of the Chalice till after he shall have said the last Mass, but on communicating himself he shall be more than otherwise at pains reverently to consume the Blood to the very last drop, revolving the bowl of the chalice between his lips to ensure that he so do.

            He shall not then wipe the chalice or his own lips, but shall open and spread the purificator across the bowl of the Chalice, shall set the paten thereon (and if he then lay the host for the next Mass on the paten shall cover the same with the pall), shall leave the corporal spread on the altar, the sacred vessels standing on it and shall lay the burse upon them.

            At the next Mass he shall be careful not to wipe the chalice before pouring in the wine.

Printed for the author at Runwell St. Mary, 1952, digitized by Richard Mammana in 2019 from a personal copy.

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