Category Archives: Bibliography

The Eastward Position, by Charles Chapman Grafton (undated)

Undated twelve-page typescript by Charles Chapman Grafton (1830-1912), transcribed in 2012 by Richard Mammana from scans provided by Canon Matthew Payne, Archivist of the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac

Whether it is one of the signs of the Second Coming of Christ or not, certain it is that there is an increasing desire among all Christian people for more generally recognized union and fellowship. Never, we believe, was there more earnest and continuous prayer being made that the wounds in Christ’s mystical body might be healed. Partly it may come from a realization of the increasing strain of conflict with unbelief, and the potency of the malefic forces of evil. Partly it may come from the Holy Spirit’s inspiration, impelling Christians to a more loving union among themselves. In no part of the Christian family is this duty more imperatively pressing than among English Churchmen.

Entrusted as God has the Anglican Church at the present time, with an evangelizing mission—imperative, world-wide—love must first assuage our internal strife that God may the better do His work through us.

Internal union is the urgent need and duty of the hour. Everything that separates Churchmen into antagonistic sections hinders that fellowship which should bind us together in Christ.

In our zeal for the maintenance of our theological opinions concerning the faith, we are apt to exaggerate their importance and make them sources of needless division. We must often have presented to the angels the spectacle of men neglecting their chief duty of extending the Kingdom of Christ while engaged in quarrels over subordinate and unessential details. God grant that this evil spirit of suspicion and distrust and discord be cast out from us and that we come to sympathise more with one another and understand one another better and dwell together as brethren.

[2] Looking to the English Church, as one turns to a spiritual Mother, the writer, being an American Churchman, has wondered why what is called in England the “Eastward position” should be made a party matter. In America, the Bishops and Clergy, whether called “high” or “low,” or “broad,” alike almost universally take that position when consecrating the elements. He remembers seeing the North End taken but once, in a clerical life, which now covers upwards of fifty years. It was then by a high Churchman who said he took that position because in the old dispensation the victim was slain at the North Side of the Altar. It seemed to him the most proper and significant as being the sacrificial side. His was an exceptional case. The Eastward position has become in America eliminated from party strife and is no sign of a party badge. Surely it would be of advantage if it could be so in England. For everything that divides Churchmen, hurts the Church and hinders Christ’s work.

One road to peace is to enlarge the category of things unessential. Let us in view of our common perils, “lighten the ship.” How foolish now seems the violence once displayed over the colour and material of the preacher’s gown. Of little consequence was it how he dressed, whether in black silk or white linen; the one all essential was the spirit with which he spoke and above all value was the message which he delivered. In like manner it is not essential to our Lord’s true and spiritual Presence, whether, in consecrating, the priest stands at one side of the Table or another. The all-absorbing fact in that divine mystery is, that Christ verily and indeed is there and by a faithful reception we can become partakers of Him. In the pulpit the clergyman, in delivering the Gospel message, is the ordained [2/3] representative of Christ as the Prophet and Teacher of mankind. At the Holy Table he is the minister of Him, Who, as our Great High Priest, blessed and brake the Bread at the last supper and offered Himself to death upon the Cross. At whatever side of the Table he stands, the clergyman is the official representative of Christ, as the Priest, and the holy gift of Christ’s Body and Blood is the same. Why, then, should the position be made a mater of division among us? In Russia there is a sect of “Old Believers” who make it a ground of complaint and separation, that the Orthodox walk round the Altar one way, from West to East, and not by way of the sun from East to West. It seems very foolish, to say nothing more, but is not this, our controversy, of just about the same character?

Quite a number of the clergy, we believe, look upon it in a mere conservative way. They have been accustomed to take a certain position and continue from habit to do so. They think that the one they have chosen is the one directed by the Prayer Book. At least, they think it to be the best interpretation they can give to the rubric. The greater number of the clergy, high and low, desire to be loyal, and if they think the question to be an open one, hold that their own practice and position is allowable. But after all, there is a diversity of practice whose significance has been exaggerated by party spirit; and if without sacrifice or principle uniformity could be brought about, would it not be better for the two schools of the Anglican Church in this respect to be in harmony? Do we not all desire to minimize our differences and come as far as possible into a loving and Christian agreement? If in America it is so, and there the position at the consecration does not divide Churchmen, why should it not [3/4] be so in England? It is but a little thing, but every barrier that is removed between Churchmen and between parties is a great gain for God. Only let the conservative clergy of all schools grow in better accord and Christian fellowship and the Church will receive a new gift of light and love from the Holy Ghost. The exigencies of our time and the future of the Church cry out to us to get together as brethren. Believing that the clergy generally desire to following the directions of the Prayer Book and be loyal to it, let us lay aside our prejudices and anew seek to discover the true interpretation of the rubric involved and be guided by it.

We thus assume that those whom we address are sincerely desirous of obeying the Prayer Book, and are willing, whatever their custom may have been hitherto, to follow its directions.

It is very difficult for any one of us to acknowledge he may have been mistaken, and it may require heroic courage to alter a life-long practice. But as writing for God and for the love He bears His Church, we will examine the question legally, honestly and disproportionately, believing that God will bless it to all humble-minded and charitably inspired souls.

The question such a person puts to himself is, what does the Prayer Book direct? His resolution is, by God’s grace I will follow it.

The Rubric reads thus:

“When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people and take the Cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration.

[5] The first and only postulate we make is, that by its terms the object and purpose of this Rubric is to determine the place where the Priest shall stand when about to consecrate. The Priest is not to determine it for himself. It is to be determined for him, by the Church. He is not to please himself or to have a choice in the matter. He is given a command which he is to obey. This being the purpose and object of the Rubric it must be so construed as determining that position. We submit this is the one and only legal way of regarding it.

It is not merely the only legal view we can take of any Rubric, but this view is corroborated by its history. During and before the period of the Commonwealth, many and angry contentions had arisen about this very matter. The communion table had in many places been moved out into the body of the Church by the Puritans. They had gathered about it as at an ordinary table, sitting about it as at a common meal. Churchmen like Bishop Wren, who had taken the old Eastward position, standing before the Table with his back to the people, had been for this very matter tried and condemned. There was throughout the church great diversity and a widespread confusion. As the Restoration of the final revision of the Prayer Book the Bishops inserted this Rubric to settle the matter. It was inserted to determine the place the Priest should occupy at the Consecration.

We will therefore assume that our postulate is granted by our readers.

Let us then examine the Rubric and see what is the position it bids the priest take. First, it is stated that the Priest shall be found “Standing before the Table.” Why, we may ask, [5/6] was the word before used in the Rubric and not some other term of local designation? Why was not some point of the compass taken, as one is in the rubric at the beginning of the communion service? Why did it not say north side or east side, or right or left side? Because the Table had by the Puritans been moved out from the chancel and could be turned about at will, and so no one particular place could be designated by any one point of the compass. What would be north or south, right or left, would be changed by every changed position of the Table. The makers of the Rubric were therefore obliged to designate the point they had in mind by some other terminology. The problem before them was how to designate the place where the priest was to stand so that it could not be affected in whatever way the Table might be turned. We shall see presently how they did this and in such wise as that no moving of the Table could affect the rubric’s meaning or change the designated place.

We must then assume they used the word “before” as best suited to carry out the intention of the rubric, which was, it is agreed, to state the position the Priest was to take.

What then does the term “before” in reference to the Table signify? Since we have agreed that the Rubric, being of an imperatively directory character, must designate some one particular side as to the priest’s position at the Table, what particular side or spot does it describe?

It is obvious that taken by itself alone, the word is an ambiguous one and may have one of two meanings.

First,—“before the Table” may mean “in the presence of the Table.”

[7] No matter, said one of the Judges of the Privy Council, when the case was being argued before him, on which side of a table I am sitting or standing, I may be said in any position to be “before the Table.”

This is true. But it cannot have that meaning assigned to it here, because, in that case, at whatever side of the Table the Priest stood, he would be before it. The Rubric would thus fail of being a directory one. It would not point out, as we agreed it should, the one place where the Priest should stand. He would be left to make his own choice. He would not be obeying an explicit command. As the purpose of the Rubric is to designate the position to be taken by the priest, the word “before” cannot mean “in the presence of,” but must mean some one particular side.

The question next is:—Can we discover from the Rubric itself what that side is? We might imagine a rubric so ambiguously worded as to make this impossible. Were the makers so unskilled as not to be able to meet this difficulty? They have gone through a large and trying experience concerning this very matter. Their attention had been especially called to it.

They could not have been so stupid as not to have weighed every possible subterfuge by which their intention could be set aside. Be this as it may, in the construction of all Canons, Statutes, Laws, Rubrics, we are bound to be guided by those wise rules which the science of the law has demonstrated to be the only sure way of arriving at their true meaning.

Now one of these laws of construction is that we must so construe a law or rubric as to carry out its purpose and also that [7/8] like or similar words used in any law must be construed as having the same meaning. Let us then apply this principle, and see if it helps us out of the difficulty. Now the word “before” is used in the Rubric designedly twice. The Priest is not only to stand “before the Table,” but he is also to break the Bread “before the people.”

What, then, we ask ourselves, does “before the people” mean? It cannot mean “in the presence of the people,” nor “in the sight of the people.” For it would not, so construed, determine the Priest’s position, and the Rubric we have seen must be construed strictly according to its purpose which is to define one position to the exclusion of all others.

If, then, the word “before the Table” designated one side of “the Table,” so the word “before” in this place must likewise signify one position in relation to “the People,” for the same word in a law must have the same meaning assigned it in one place as in another. And as the object of the Rubric was to designate the position of the Priest, this term must be construed to further the end for which the Rubric was made.

Now the phrase “before the people” as designating a position to be taken by the Clergyman has but one signification. It cannot mean behind the people, nor can it mean on one side, or the right or the left flank of the people. When a Colonel is bidden to stand before his regiment, or a Captain before his company, it does not mean either behind them or on one side, but in front of them. And if the priest is thus placed in front of the people, the people by the same direction are placed behind him.

We now see why the makers of the Rubric avoided taking the points of the compass, or using any old liturgical terminology [8/9] to disclose the Priest’s position. For had they done so, it could have been easily evaded by a removal or turning about of the Table or by the people surrounding it. So they wisely took two objects, viz: the Table and the People. Their purpose could not then be evaded wherever the Table might be placed. The Priest was bidden so to stand, as at the same time to be “before the People” and “before the Table.”

Since the word “before” must be legally construed as having the same signification in each clause of the Rubric, and the Priest is directed by the word “before” not to stand behind the people or at one side of them, but, they being behind him, in front of them, so likewise he is bidden by the same word “before” not to stand behind the Table, or at one end or side of it, but in front of it.

Why, it possible may be asked, is not the Priest before the Table and also before the people, when standing at the so-called North End of the Altar? Because in that case the word “before” would be used ambiguously, i.e. in two different senses. While the clergyman would be “before the people” in that, though standing sidewise, he would yet be in front of them; he would not be before or in front of the Table, but at one side of it. He could only be said to be “before it” in the sense of “being in its presence,” which we found must be a rejected signification. It has to be rejected because it does not designate one particular side of the Table to the exclusion of all the others. The term “before the people” means, therefore, somewhere in front of them. In front of them must signify the locality whither the faces of the body of the people are turned. The Table [9/10] likewise has a back side and a front side. “Before the Table” here then must mean the front of it or the way it faces. The two objects given by which the Priest’s position is fixed, are the people and the Table. The front side of the people is that side of them, considered as a body, that faces the Table; the front side of the Table is the side of it that fronts or is turned towards the people.

The Rubrical direction then, so far as we have examined it, places the Priest somewhere between the people and the Table. He must be before the people as they face the Table and before the Table as it faces the people.

But if the Rubric had only said this, the place of the Priest would still be undetermined, for he would be in front of both the people and the Table, whether he was standing close to the people, or midway between the Table and the people, or with his face turned towards the people, or if he were standing sidewise.

The makers of the Rubric, who were not unskillful men and also had had to cope with a great deal of ingenious Puritan evasion in this very matter, framed their Rubric to meet this further necessity. They seem to have carefully studied how they could, with their experience of the past, frame a Rubric which would meet all efforts to evade it and which would embody their own practice.

So they added some further directions, skillfully working them into the Rubric, which did two things. First having, as we have seen by their direction, placed the Priest between the Table and the people, they ordered him to stand not near the people but [10/11] ordered him to stand not near the people but close to the Table. He must so stand near the Table that he “may order or arrange the Bread and Wine.” Thus he was placed between the people and the Table, but close to the Altar.

Moreover lest he should face the people while he consecrated, they also ordered that so standing he must break the Bread and take the Cup into his hands. This direction turns him with his face and both hands towards the Altar, where the Elements have been ordered to be placed. In order to break the Bread and take the Cup into both hands, he must, to do this, be turned fully around towards the Table. He cannot perform these acts with his face to the people and his back to the Altar. He cannot do it as he is directed if he stands sidewise, for then he would have but one arm and one hand towards the Table. And having turned towards the Table there is no direction that he should take any other position.

Thus the Rubric places him between Table and people and close to the Altar and turned towards it. There is one further point the authors of the rubric seem to have had in mind. It was and is still customary to place the Elements before or at some part of the service on the Table and by custom in a central position or the middle of it.

When Bishop Wren was tried, in the time of the Commonwealth, and it was charged that he took the Eastward position at the time of the Consecration, and did not stand at the North End, he pleaded that being short of stature, it was both inconvenient for him standing there to reach over to the distant Elements, in the middle of the Table, and that obeying the Apostolic injunction, “do everything in decency and order,” the position he adopted was the [11/12] most seemly and decent. The please was scornfully rejected. When the Bishops at the time of the Restoration, and Wren was one of them, formed this rubric, they very naturally embodied Wren’s plea within it. Not only did they frame a Rubric which should place the Priest next to the front of the Table and turned toward it, but placed where he had ever been accustomed to stand, viz: in the middle of the Altar as the place where he could with “more readiness and decency,” according to their view, break the Bread and take the Cup into his hands. We submit that what is called the Eastward position is shown to be he legal and the correct one.

The idea that the Reformers of 1662 had any notion that it was of any doctrinal significance, or of devotional value for the people to see the manual acts finds no warrant in Anglican theology or the Rubric. Yet we should in conclusion deal with what seems to be with some, more like an unreason prejudice, than a real difficulty.

If the English clergy would unite with their American brethren, in adopting this legal common sense construction of the Rubric, the two communions would become more assimilated, and by the removal of the question from the area of party strife, the cause of Christian unity and harmony among ourselves, so necessary, so imperative for the future of England’s Church, would be greatly forwarded. The prayer of every true lover of the Anglican Church must be, that her members miss not the day of their visitation, but with loving tolerance of even brothers’ weaknesses, rally together to withstand the assault, it may be the final one, between unbelief and worldliness and the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

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The Faithful Pastor’s Monument, by J.H.A. Bomberger (1852)

The Faithful Pastor’s Monument: A Sermon, Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. Thomas Pomp, for Fifty-Six Years Pastor of the German Reformed Church of Easton, Pa.
By J. H. A. Bomberger, Surviving Pastor of the Congregation.
Easton: Published by the Consistory, 1852.
Digitized by Richard Mammana, 2022.

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Pennsylvania Dutch Dispute (New York Times, 1930)

To the Editor of The New York Times:

A letter from me concerning the dialect of the Pennsylvania Germans, or Pennsylvania “Dutch,” appeared in THE TIMES of July 7. This letter was rather extensively reprinted, particularly in the newspapers of Pennsylvania, the German-American newspapers, and a number of newspapers in Germany. But there are many additional facts that will appeal to these large circles of readers, especially those pertaining to the characteristics of this language and to several important works in the field which were not mentioned in my previous article.

Although, as stated in my other article, Horne’s Pennsylvania German Manual is, so far as I can learn, the only popular general manual that has gone out of print, there are a number of other important works on certain phases of the dialect that should receive serious attention. I refer especially to Lambert’s Dictionary of the Pennsylvania German Dialect and Fogel’s Proverbs of the Pennsylvania Germans. Both works were published in the annual volumes of the Pennsylvania German Society, whose present address is Norristown, Pa., and whose activities have recently been resumed more energetically under the executive and financial leadership of Ralph Beaver Strassburger of that city. Lambert’s Dictionary is in Volume XXX, published in 1924; Fogel’s work is in Volume XXXVI, which was issued only a few weeks ago.

Lambert’s work gives a very comprehensive, and, with one deplorable exception, correct system of spelling and pronunciation, and a list of about 16,000 dialect words with the definitions and derivations. There are some regrettable omissions, for instance “henn” for German “haben” (English “to have), one of the most distinctive words of the dialect. Nevertheless, the work is in the main a highly scholarly one and indispensable to every advanced student of the subject. Fogel’s work gives a very large number of the old and familiar sayings of these people, together with the English and standard German renditions and equivalents. It is of course delightful reading. This writer’s spelling and pronunciation, like Lambert’s, are correct in the main but are wrong in at least one extremely important respect.

The error committed by both writers is in the pronunciation of g in the middle of words. For all words they change it to j—the equivalent of the English y, instead of only in a few words—morje or marje; “morgen,” morning, and several other words, as was done by Horne, who was evidently a careful observer and spoke the dialect all his life.

The medial g sound varies somewhat in different localities, but in the main it has always been as follows: German g changes to dialect j, English y, in most words in which it follows a, especially in merje or marje, aerjets and naerjets; German morgen, irgend and nirgend; English morning, anywhere, and nowhere. It weakens and approaches but does not reach j after the front vocals, German e, i, ie, ei, ä, and ai. Examples: Rejer, leje (German Regen, legen, English rain, lay). The strong German ch sound remains after the back vowels, a, o, u, and au. Examples: Dialect Waage, Aage, froge; for German Wagen, Augen, fragen, and English wagon, eyes, to ask. The hard g sound, as in English, or almost the hard sound, occurs in words with double g, or words ending in el; Naeg’l, for nail, &c.

Professor Lambert says in his introduction, and correctly I contend, that the Pennsylvania dialect in the main is homogeneous, and not several distinct dialects, but he errs in saying it most closely resembles that of the Westrich section of the Pfalz, the portion west of the Haardt Mountains, which extend north and south, just west of Dürkheim and Neustadt.

Professor Fogel, in his introduction, reiterates a view he has held for years that there are two distinct dialects: the Palatine in Berks, Lehigh and adjoining Pennsylvania counties, and the Swiss Alemannic in Lancaster County and vicinity. If this were true, he should have presented two sets of proverbs in his work. But he says the quest for Alemannic proverbs gave unsatisfactory results, and he almost implies there are no Alemannic proverbs. May I suggest there was a very compelling reason for finding no such proverbs in Lancaster County? There are none; there is no Alemannic dialect there, save a very few surviving words. There is only one Pennsylvania German dialect, except for minor variations.

My own people lived in Lancaster County or sprang from there. The dialect we used differs only slightly from that further north. Moreover, a questionnaire I recently circulated in Lancaster County confirms the view that almost no Swiss dialect survivals remain. More than that, the Swiss vernacular was probably never used much in Pennsylvania. One reason was that the pioneers of Lancaster County, while natives of Switzerland, came by way of the Palatinate and sojourned there for several years; another reason is they were always outnumbered by the Palatines. Moreover, there was probably a recognition that the Pfalz dialect is inherently simpler, more euphonious, and in many other respects preferable to the Swiss.

Ludington, Mich. Dec. 30, 1929.

The New York Times, January 5, 1930

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Pennsylvania German Dialect Pseudonyms

Beam, C. Richard15 Feb 192526 Jan 2018Es Bischli-Gnippli
Dieffenbach, Victor26 Oct 188226 Jun 1965Der Oldt Bauer
Druckenbrod, Richard29 May 192927 Oct 2003Pit Schweffelbrenner
Erb, William H.30 Apr 187031 Jan 1940Der Gus
Frey, John William23 Jul 191621 Aug 1989Der Glee Bill
Graeff, Arthur D.22 Sep 189928 Mar 1969Der Dichter vun de Dolpehock, Der ewich Yeeger
Grumbine, Ezra L.1 Feb 184516 Feb 1923Wendell Kitzmiller
Grumbine, Lee L.25 Jul 185818 Aug 1904Old Schulmashter
Harter, Thomas H.28 May 185431 May 1933Gottlieb Boonastiel
Landis, Henry K.186527 Dec 1955Der Gross Henner
Miller, Harvey M.27 Sep 187117 Jun 1939Solly Hulsbuck
Rauch, Edward H.18268 Sep 1902Pit Schweffelbrenner fum Scheifeltown
Reitnauer, Clarence12 Nov 19005 Apr 1989Der Shdivvel Knecht
Rittinger, John A.16 Feb 185529 Jul 1915Joe Klotzkopp
Snyder, G. Gilbert15 Jun 189717 Nov 1956Die Wunnernaus
Swope, Pierce E.15 Aug 18849 Dec 1968Kaspar Hufnagel
Troxell, William S.11 Jun 189310 Aug 1957Pumpernickel Bill
Schuler, Henry A.12 Jul 185014 Jan 1908Der Kalennermann

This is a dynamic list open to corrections and additions. Please write to with either.

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Toward a Uniate Rite, by J.E. Bazille-Corbin (1952)

Toward a Uniate Rite: Being the Text of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon, Closely Rendered into English, Rubricated and Presented in a Usable Form


            In the subsequent pages will be found the ORDINARY and CANON of the Western Mass, translated from the Latin of the later printed SARUM missals, in which we possess the VENERABLE RITE OF SAINT OSMUND in its final and mature form.

            The translation adheres word for word, as closely as the English language permits, to the Latin original.

            A like version of the current ROMAN RITE, including the full PROPRIA, made its appearance some years back and is published by Messrs. Knott (of Brook Street, Holborn) under the title of “The English Missal”. Its purpose is employment in conjunction with (or in part, or wholly as a substitute for) the Holy Communion service of the Book of Common Prayer of 1662, which remains the authorized altar-liturgy of the Church of England.

            Messrs. Knott’s “English Missal” has run into several editions and would appear to be extensively used by the Catholic-minded clergy of the Anglican Church in this country, though with little or scant sanction from their Episcopate.

            It has been thought, not only by myself but by not a few eminent churchmen and liturgiologists whom I have consulted, that a translation of the SARUM Ordinary and Canon (possibly as the precursor of a complete Sarum Missal in English) with rubrical direction as ample and detailed as those in Messrs. Knott’s “English Missal”, might well prove of value at the present time, both as the essential part of a practical altar-book and to the student, be he cleric or laic. To this end therefore it is now put out.

            Apart from the “Anglo-Catholic “ party, which whether or no it be actually realised by all its component members, is really a centripetal movement of the separated part towards “ the Rock “ whence in the sixteenth century it was ruthlessly “hewn”, there is a spate of other small bodies, many of them of extreme numerical tininess, some indeed possessing hardly more than a paper existence save in the minds of their particular hierarch, yet all, it would seem, groping their way towards the Divine plan of a United Christendom and all insistently claiming to possess Sacred Orders of valid origin. From enquiries that I have been at pains to make, I have discovered that no one of these bodies claims to be a “church” in the schismatic sense in which that noun is often used, but rather considers itself an autocephalous rite within the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church of God.

            The largest perhaps of these communions, with a world-basis of organization, is known as “The Catholic Apostolic Church”—(it has no connection with the similarly entitled “Irvingite” body)—or “The Catholicate of the West”.

            The original channel of its Orders comes from the Syrian-Jacobite patriarchate of Antioch—but, by a series of subsequent Consecrations, all received “sub conditione”, its present Patriarch, His Sacred Beatitude Mar Georgius I, has consolidated in his own person no fewer than eight distinct “lines” of valid episcopal succession, in addition to (as he describes it, “for what they may be worth”), the Anglican and Nonjuring successions.

            “The Catholicate of the West” has moreover been granted legal incorporation by the government of India and is thus a State-chartered body.

… We can hardly evade the conclusion, if facts be faced up to and unmistakable tendencies examined, that all these communions, including the entire Anglican body, in their recoil from the impact with today’s atheistic communism, indifferentism, and religious bankruptcy, are moving, often quite unconsciously, or (may it not be said?) are gently being drawn by the Divine Hand, towards that rock-like bulwark of the Christian Faith and one visible fold, the historic See of Peter.

            And having arrived at the gates of spiritual Rome, on what terms may we suppose, will they be received? Doubtless, for perfect             œcumenical assurance, conditional validation of their Orders, or perhaps Ordination “de novo” may be required, and then, if they should not be desirous of being absorbed into the secular rite of the West, they might conceivably be allowed to continue their existence as one or more UNIATE BODIES in full communion with the Holy See.

… (It should here be noted that no Uniate Church within the papal communion uses the Roman secular Liturgy.

            Each has its own traditional rite and ceremonial.

            Each preserves intact its internal organization and discipline.

            Thus the several Uniate Rites of the East find their expression either in the vernacular tongue, or, more generally, in an archaic traditional form of the vernacular.)

            Granted that the facts and probabilities as above set out, be correct, it were surely convenient that the rite, once more widely current than any other in this country, should be available today in English and in a practical, i.e., a usable dress.

            Up to the present there has existed no edition (free from extraneous interpolations) in the English tongue, of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon, so rubricated and arranged, as to be conveniently read at the altar.

            . . . In the pages that follow, the rendering of the Latin given in “The English Missal” has, after a careful comparison, been closely followed wherever the text of the Sarum and Roman liturgies are identical.

            This has been done in no spirit of plagiarism or uncritical “philoanglicanism” but deliberately, with intent that the present version may avoid any pointless verbal variations from the valuable work published by Messrs. Knott, variations such as must necessarily irritate and confuse a priest who had grown familiar with the closely literal, yet rhythmical and ear-pleasing, and in my opinion (which has been arrived at after a careful comparison therewith of numerous other translations into English of the Roman rite), unquestionably the best version so far produced.

            In my responsibility for the text and rubrics that follow I therefore desire straightway to record my grateful indebtedness both to the Editor and the Publishers of “The English Missal”.

            … A Low Mass, in its simplest form, that is one whereat the celebrant is assisted by a single server, is all that is here contemplated. No provision has been made for the ministering of Holy Communion during or outside the Mass, and it is certainly doubtful whether, it was, prior to the Reformation, normally administered, as is now frequently done in the Western Church, outside the service.

            If then this version of the Sarum Ordinary and Canon be used, Holy Communion can be given very much along the lines of the rite prescribed for that purpose in the Roman Missal (see Messrs. Knott’s The English Missal). The Sarum “Confessio”, etc., being substituted for the Roman “Confiteor”, etc., and the threefold “Domine non sum dignus . . .”, which does not occur in the Sarum liturgy, omitted.

            [Holy Communion will be received of course, in one kind only and the Blessed Sacrament placed direct in the recipient’s mouth whose tongue at the time of reception should be somewhat extended and rested upon the lower lip.

            The “houselling cloth”, stretching the length of the Communion rail will be used, the communicant raising it, with both hands placed beneath, to just below his chin. If the intending communicants be ten (or under ten), in number, the necessary small wafers will have been set in a pile on the corporal for consecration to the left of the priest’s Host, having, at the Offertory or earlier, been placed on the paten with the Host.

            If more be required, a standing pyx (or ciborium) will be used. (A second chalice, covered with a pall, can take the place, if necessary, of a standing pyx).

            During the first part of the service this will be set just behind the corporal after the latter has been spread. It will be moved on to the corporal, to its right hand side, and uncovered when the priest offers the Host and the chalice together at the Offertory and covered immediately afterwards.

            The priest will again uncover the pyx just before he begins the words:—“Who the day before He suffered . . .” and will cover it again immediately before he uncovers the chalice and says:—“Likewise after supper . . . ”

            It is more consonant with ancient practice to place the small wafers for the communicants on the paten, or in the standing pyx, at the same time as the paten and chalice are themselves prepared; but, if the number of intending communicants be not easily ascertainable before the service starts, it may be necessary for them to be taken from the wafer-box immediately after the priest has read the Offertory verse.]

            . . Should there arise, subsequent to the publication of the present work, a demand for a “directorium” for the celebration of a High Mass on similar lines, this could be met later by a supplementary compendium of the necessary instructions. Meanwhile the Sarum Ordinary and Canon as here below set out can be privately bound up and used in conjunction with the “Propria” as given in “The English Missal”, until such time as a translation in full of the Sarum Proper be forthcoming, together with the Kalendar, in which there are naturally fewer feasts than find place in the Roman rite of today. The number of commemorations could then be brought up to date as authority might direct.


            As is generally known the old liturgical texts were but sparsely rubricated in comparison with those of today, even after the introduction of printing. The pre-Reformation rites moreover, both here and abroad, were drawn up in contemplation of the norm of Eucharistic celebration, i.e., they dealt exclusively with what was to be said or done at a High Mass.

            Whence then, it might be asked, have been collected all the detailed directions that appear in this English version? Let it not be thought for a moment that any one of them is the fruit of a lively imagination, or has been capriciously composed. To a large extent they are the result of a study of the many small handbooks or tractates widely current in the fourteenth and two subsequent centuries both here and in northern France (and indeed elsewhere in Europe also), which were put out by practised liturgiologists to instruct and assist the priest in an accurate performance of his daily craft—the celebration of a Low Mass. Those here drawn upon, with the exception of the Dutch tract DAT BOEXKEN VANDER MISSEN (Antwerp 1507), are collected in the late Dr. J. Wickham Legg’s “Tracts on the Mass”, London 1904, q.v. Other works consulted are:—

            Thomas Becon: Works. Vol. III “The Displaying of the Popish Mass”. P.257.

            Becon, one of Cranmer’s chaplains, is known chiefly by his scurrilous Protestant writings. And unpleasant though it be to quote from such a source, he may be relied on as giving us, from his own point of view, an accurate picture of the ceremonies of Low Mass with which he was familiar in his Catholic days. He wrote, while in exile, during Queen Mary’s reign.

            “The Layfolks’ Mass Book”. Early English Text Society, London 1879.

            “The Clerk’s Book of 1549”. J. Wickham Legg. Henry Bradshaw Society, London 1903.

            John Myrc—“Instructions for Parish Priests”. Early English Text Society, London 1868.

            L. Duchesne—“Origines du culte chrétien”, Paris 1889, P.195.

            “The Use of Sarum”. Vol. 1, P.62, etc. W. H. Frere, Cambridge 1898.

“Studies in Ceremonial”. P.236, etc. V. Staley. Oxford 1901.

            “The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England”. 3rd Edition. W. Maskell. Oxford 1882.

            “The Sarum Missal in English”. Part I. F. E. Warren. London 1911.

            “Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis”. Vols. I & II. Surtees Society 1874.

            “Claude de Vert”. “Explication des ceremonies de l’Eglise”. Vol. III. P.2, etc. Ed. 1713. (Where special mention is made of the rite of Salisbury.)

            “Pierre le Brun”. “Explication de la Messe”. Vols. III. P.111, etc. Ed. 1726 (quoting Micrologus who wrote circa. 1090.)

            Dr. Rock. (Ed. Hart and Frere), London 1905. “Church of our Fathers”. Vol. I. pp. 477-8 and elsewhere.

            De Molèon. “Voyages Liturgiques”. P. 87, etc. Paris 1718.

Further to the above, notes have been made and facts collected over a period of some thirty-six years from sources too numerous to particularize. For example, in 1913, I was in correspondence with the late Canon Vernon Staley (then Rector of Ickford, Oxfordshire) over a wide range of liturgical subjects and we discussed the possibility of a revision of the “Prayer Book” rite. Early in 1915 letters passed between myself and the late Canon F. E. Warren, Rector of Bardwell, Bury S. Edmunds: in connection with certain obscurities in the Holy Week ceremonies, not completely elucidated in his translation (in two volumes) of the Sarum Missal.

            In 1920 letters passed between myself and Dr. Francis C. Eeles (who was then engaged at the Victoria and Albert Museum), as to Thomas Becon’s reference to the “Commixture” and the position of the “Angus Dei” in relation thereto.

            To the last named, and to the memories of the two former, as well as to all those who have helped me personally, and who have generously put the result of their studies and investigations at my disposal, I desire to record my thanks and indebtedness, also to those whose books I have consulted over more than half a life-time, and to many friends whose encouragement has made the publication of this present work a possibility.

            … In such respect was the ancient Use of Sarum held, both in this country and abroad, that it is possible to collect from a number of writers quotations from, and comments on, the manner in which the ceremonies accompanying the “Rite of S. Osmund” were performed, not so much in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury, where there was ample space and equipment for their rendering in the fullest and most dignified manner, but rather as with such modifications and adaptations which the then exigencies of the average parish church necessitated.

            It was the measure of prestige that the Use of Sarum had acquired, long prior to the issue of the first English “Book of Common Prayer”, that ultimately caused the Convocations of the Realm to accept it as the standard to which all diocesan and local practices should ideally conform. There seems little doubt that, at least in the southern province, the rites proper to the Religious Orders (then, doomed to but a few years of further existence) excepted, considerable attention was being given to put this “recommendation”—if it were nothing stronger—into practical effect.

            It is idle to speculate as to what might have been the liturgical result, or how different the course of Church life and history could have been in England, if Henry VII’s elder son Arthur, married to a Princess of Spain, had succeeded his father, or if Queen Mary I had had a son by her husband King Philip.


Runwell S. Mary,


Feast of the Assumption of our Lady, 1951.

The Order for the Celebration of Low Mass


according to the

Use of the Illustrious Church

of Salisbury


rendered into English (and rubricated in detail, the directions taken from those in the printed editions of the Sarum Missal of several dates, from the Sarum Consuetudinary and Customary, and from “Alphabetum Sacerdotum” and such other handbooks and tractates as were in common use by the clergy of England in the times before the Reformation). 



Rector of Runwell S. Mary, Essex.

The Ordinary of the Mass

The priest shall be careful that his hands are washed before he celebrates Holy Mass.

            He may, if he choose,

(i) prepare both the paten and the chalice in the sacristy, or other accustomed place, before he assumes the sacred vestments, blessing the water in the cruet, (which water shall be renewed daily), in the manner below prescribed. The paten, with the host covered by the pall, shall then be set upon the chalice, and the burse, containing the purificator and corporal, shall be laid upon the paten, Or

(ii) He may carry in the vessels empty, (the purificator being within the chalice-bowl, and the burse, containing the pall and corporal resting on the paten which he has placed on top of the chalice,) and prepare them after concluding the psalm Judica me and when he has reached the altar, Or

(iii) the chalice alone may be prepared when he has arrived at the altar, the host having already laid on the paten and covered with the pall.

            The priest will vest in the sacristy, if there be one. Otherwise he may vest in a side-chapel, where the vestments have been laid out for that purpose, or, even at the altar which he is to celebrate, which will be prepared beforehand: the vestments being arranged in order on the north part of the altar itself; the paten and the chalice containing the purificator, together with the burse, containing the corporal and pall, in the centre; the missal, on its cushion or desk, at the south part of the altar; the cruets and the bread-box, the bowl and the towel for the hand-washing at the Offertory, on the piscina-shelf, credence, or other convenient place nearby.

            As he puts on the sacred vestments the priest will say the hymn Veni Creator Spiritusand that which follows: 

            “Come Holy Ghost, our souls inspire

And lighten with celestial fire,

Thou the annointing Spirit art

            Who dost thy sevenfold gifts impart.

Thy blessed unction from above

            Its comfort, life and fire of love;

Enable with perpetual light

            The dullness of our blinded sight.

Anoint and cheer our soiled face

            With the abundance of thy grace.

Keep far our foes, give peace at home

            Where thou art guide, no ill can come.

Teach us to know the Father, Son,

            And Thee, of both to be but One;

That through the ages all along,

            This may be our endless song.

Praise to thine eternal merit

            Father, Son and Holy Spirit.”

            V. “Send forth thy Spirit and thy shall be made

R. And Thou shalt renew the face of the earth.”

            “God unto whom all hearts be open, all desires known and from whom no secret lies hid: Cleanse the thoughts of our heart by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit that we may be worthy perfectly to love Thee and fitly to praise Thee.

            Through Christ our lord. Amen.”

            As he takes the chasuble the priest shall begin the antiphon:

“I will go unto the altar of God.”

            and shall continue, or else the clerk shall answer:

            “Even unto the God of my joy and gladness.”

Carrying the vessels, his left hand holding the chalice, the paten resting upon it, his right hand laid lightly upon the burse, preceded by the clerk, the priest shall go to the altar continuing privately, or, by alternate verses, aloud with the clerk:—

1. Give sentence with me, O God, and defend my cause against the ungodly people: O deliver me from the deceitful and wicked man.

2. For thou art the God of my strength, why hash thou put me from thee: And why go I so heavily, while the enemy oppresseth me?

3. O send out thy light and thy truth, that they may lead me: And bring me unto thy holy hill to thy dwelling.

4. And that I may go unto the altar of God, even unto the God of my joy and gladness: And upon the harp will I give thanks unto thee, O God, my God.

5. Why art thou so heavy, O my soul: And why art thou so disquieted within me?

6. O put thy trust in God, for I will yet give him thanks: Which is the help of my countenance and my God.

7. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost:

8. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

            AntiphonI will go unto the Altar of God: Even unto the God of my joy and gladness.

            From Passion Sunday until Maundy Thursday inclusive, in Masses of the Season, the Psalm “Give sentence with me,” is omitted, the antiphon being, however, said once in full. This is done likewise in all Masses for the Departed.

            Having arrived at the altar, the priest shall make the accustomed reverence and ascend the steps, or step, to the middle of the altar. Setting down the vessels, a little to his left he will take the corporal from the burse and spread it on the altar in the midst and place the vessels in the centre thereof. The burse he will set upright, its opening downwards at the back part of the altar somewhat to his left, or, if it be more convenient, to his right, or may lean it against the reredos.

            [N.B. The front edge of the corporal shall reach to the front edge of the altar but shall not overhang the same.]   

            Unless the host be already in the paten and covered by the pall this shall be done now, the clerk ministering to the priest throughout.

            Then, if the chalice have not been made, the priest shall proceed to prepare it as follows:

            He shall take the chalice in his left hand, wipe the inside of the bowl with the purificator, set the purificator down on the altar to the right of the corporal leaving it folded in three and lying horizontally and parallel to the edge of the altar, shall take the cruet of wine in his right hand from the clerk and shall pour a small quantity of wine into the chalice.

            The clerk shall take back the wine-cruet and shall offer the priest the cruet of water saying: Bless.

            The priest shall replyThe Lord. and shall bless the water in the cruet with the sign of the Cross saying:

By Him be it blest, from whose side came forth Blood and Water. +

In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Taking the cruet, the priest shall add to the wine in the chalice a few drops of water.

            He shall then set the chalice in the centre of the corporal, cover it with the paten containing the host which in turn is covered with the pall (and, if he choose, with the burse as well), continuing privately as below:  

            Meanwhile turning by his right he shall go to the book on its cushion, or desk, on the south end of the altar and shall open it at the Proper of the Mass which he is to say.

            Kyrie eleison: Christe eleison: Kyrie eleison.

            Our Father which (or who) are in Heaven: Hallowed be thy Name: Thy Kingdom come: Thy will be done in earth as it is in Heaven.

            Give us this day our daily bread: And forgive us our trespasses:

            As we forgive them that trespass against us:—

            Hail Mary, full of grace: The Lord is with thee: Blessed art thou among women: And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.

            Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of death:—

            Having turned from the book by his left and gone to the midst of the altar, the priest shall lower his amice (together with his hood), using both hands, on to his neck and turning by his right shall come down to the pavement, i.e., to below the lowest step, turn again by his right so as to stand facing the centre of the altar, where, with his hands joined (and the clerk kneeling on his left), he shall say in a loud voice:

            And lead us not into temptation.

            R. But deliver us from evil.

            Confess unto the Lord, for he is gracious.

            R. For his mercy endureth for ever.

            Inclining forward the priest shall continue:

            I confess to God, to blessed Mary, to all the Saints and to thee, that I have sinned exceedingly, in thought, word and deed, through my fault. I beg holy Mary, all the saints of God, and thee, to pray for me.

            The clerk shall answer:

            Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee all thy sins, deliver thee from every evil, preserve and strengthen thee in goodness, and bring thee to everlasting life.

            The priest shall answer. Amen and shall stand upright. The clerk shall repeat the Confession:

            I confess to God, to blessed Mary, to all the saints, and to thee, that I have sinned exceedingly, in thought, word and deed, through my fault. I beg Holy Mary, all the saints of God, and thee, to pray for me.

            The priest shall answer, as above:

            Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee all thy sins, deliver thee from every evil, preserve and strengthen thee in goodness, and bring thee to everlasting life

            R. Amen.

            And the priest shall add: (both he and the clerk signing themselves with the sign of the Cross meanwhile):

            The Almighty and merciful Lord grant unto us + absolution and remission of all our sins, time for true repentance and amendment of life and the grace and comfort of the Holy Ghost.

            R. Amen.

            V. + Our help is in the Name of the Lord.

            R. Who hath made heaven and earth.

            V. Blessed be the Name of the Lord.

R. Henceforth, world without end.

            PriestLet us pray.    

            As he says Let us pray the priest goes up to the centre of the altar, his hands joined and in a loud voice, with body inclined continues:

            Take away from us, O Lord, all our iniquities, that with pure minds we may be worthy to enter into the Holy of Holies. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Disjoining his hands and laying them somewhat apart with palms down on the altar he will kiss the altar, raise himself and make the sign of the Cross upon his face, saying:

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Then will the priest go to the south end of the altar and read the “Office” (or “Introit” as it is more commonly called) with his hands joined. This is the manner in which the “Office” is said.

            The Office and the Psalm are first said, and the Office is repeated. Then is said Glory be to the Father . . . etc. After which the Office is repeated for the third time. But from Passion Sunday until Maundy Thursday inclusive, in Masses of its season, “Glory be . . . ” etc., is omitted, and the Office is not repeated a third time.

            Then in the same place, with his hands joined, the priest shall say the ninefold Kyrie alternately with the clerk.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

            R. Kyrie eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

R. Christe eleison.

            V. Christe eleison.

            R. Christe eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

R. Kyrie eleison.

            V. Kyrie eleison.

            After the Kyrie said, the priest, turning by his left goes to the middle of the altar and there begins (if it is to be said), Gloria in excelsis, extending and then joining his hands and inclining somewhat.

            Glory be to God on high:

After the above words said he shall betake himself to the south end of the altar and continue with joined hands.

            And in earth peace to men of goodwill. We praise thee. We bless thee. We worship thee. We glorify thee. We give thanks to thee for thy great glory. O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty. O Lord, the only-begotten Son Jesu Christ, O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou, that sitteth at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us. For thou only art holy. Thou only art the Lord. Thou only O, Jesu Christ, with the Holy Ghost + art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

            Note that Gloria in excelsis is not said except on feast days and on such Sundays as are outside the season of Advent. Nor is it said from Septuagesima until Easter Even either on Sundays or when the Mass is of the season. Nor is it said when, at any time, the Sunday Mass is resumed during the week.

            Note that whenever the priest shall turn to salute the people with the words The Lord be with you, he shall first kiss the altar in the midst, and turn by the right, extending, slightly raising and then joining his hands, and when he kisses the altar he shall lay his hands somewhat apart, the palms downwards, thereon.

            Having made the sign of the cross upon his face at the end of Gloria in excelsis, the priest will return to the centre of the altar, and then turn to the people, and say:

            The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

Having gone again to the south end and turned to the altar, he says:

Let us pray

and the Collect or Collects as the occasion may require.

            When more than one Collect is to be said, the first Collect and the last (even if there be only two to be said), alone, shall have the full ending, and before the second Callect Let us pray, is to be repeated. The like rule is observed with the Secrets and with the Postcommunions, which at all times must correspond, both in number and source with the Collects.

The conclusion, commencing Through … (or in the instances in which the prayer is addressed to God the Son, Who livest … ) is always said with the hands joined, that is with the tips of the fingers of each hand touching.

            Then shall follow the Epistle or Lesson, which the priest will read in the same place facing due east, the book lying on its desk (or cushion) and the priest placing the palms of his hands on the pages.

            Which read, he shall straightway read the Gradual and Alleluiatic Verse, or the Tract and the Sequenceas may be appointed.

            Then, turning by his left, the priest shall go to the centre of the altar (the Missal and its desk meanwhile having been carried by the Clerk to the Gospel end, and set there angle-wise, so that the Gospel may be read towards the North. If necessary the priest may move the book thither himself), and raising with both hands, the pall, together with the paten (on which lies the host), from the top of the chalice, shall glance within the chalice to make sure that he has not omitted to prepare the same, and then shall immediately replace the paten, the pall thereon. Then, with joined hands, he shall say, in a low voice:

            Bid, Sir, a blessing.

and shall himself reply:

            The Lord be in my heart, and in my mouth, that I may proclaim the holy Gospel of God. + In the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Here he shall sign himself from forehead to breast and then, turning by the left, go to the north part of the altar, where facing, as far as possible due north, he shall read the Gospel with hands joined. First, however, without turning to the people, or disjoining his hands, he says:

            The Lord be with you

R. And with thy spirit.

            Making the sign of the Cross first upon the open book, secondly upon his forehead, and thirdly on his breast, with his right thumb, he says:

            + The beginning (or the continuation) of the + Holy Gospel according to +

            R. + Glory be to thee, O Lord.

            No response is made at the end of the Gospel, but the priest, having finished reading, kisses the book, which on its desk or cushion is moved again nearer to the centre of the altar, but still on the priest’s left hand. Turning by his right, the priest moves to the centre of the altar.

            Standing in the midst of the altar the priest shall begin the Creed if it is to be said). The Creed is said on all Sundays without exception throughout the year, and on a number of other days as appointed in the “Propria”.

            Extending, raising and then joining his hands, he shall say:

I believe in one God—

the rest is said with hands joined. He inclines his head as he says God and again at the holy Name Jesus and again at worshipped. He makes a profound reverence, or a genuflexion on his right knee, at And was incarnate until after he has said And was made man. At And the life of the world to come it is customary that he sign himself from the forehead to the breast. 

the Father almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father, before all worlds. God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, Begotten not made; Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made. Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, AND WAS INCARNATE BY THE HOLY GHOST OF THE VIRGIN MARY, AND WAS MADE MAN. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried. And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven. And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of Life. Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified. Who spoke by the prophets. And I believe One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead. And the life of the world to come. Amen.

            Then shall the priest kiss the altar in the midst, in the manner described before the Collect, and turning likewise to the people shall say:

            The Lord be with you.

R. And with thy spirit.

            Having turned back to the altar, without moving from the centre and with hands joined, he shall say: Let us pray, and shall read the Offertory.

            Which read, he shall remove the pall from off the paten and place it to his right on the altar and with both hands shall raise the chalice, the paten resting on it, to the height of his breast and shall say:

            Receive, O Holy Trinity this Oblation, which I, an unworthy sinner, offer in thine honour, and in that of Blessed Mary, and of all thy saints: for my sins and offences: for the salvation of the living: and for the repose of all the faithful departed.

            Then tracing out the sign of the Cross, over the corporal, with the vessels as he sets them down again thereon, he shall say:      

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen. May this new Sacrifice be accepted of almighty God.

            Which done, he takes the paten from the chalice, slips the host off on to the centre of the front third of the corporal, immediately in front of the chalice, kisses the paten and places it to his right upon the altar so that it is half underneath the spread corporal and half beneath the purificator. He then covers the chalice with the pall.

            Then he goes to the south end of the altar and washes his thumbs and forefinger, the clerk ministering to him with the water (the cruet may be used for this purpose, but a separate jug with unblessed water is to be preferred), the basin and the finger-cloth (or towel).

            As the clerk pours the water over his thumbs and forefingers, or, as he dries his hands on the finger-cloth, the priest says:

            Cleanse me O Lord from all pollutions of mind and of body, that being clean, I may be able to fulfil the holy work of the Lord.

            Then having returned to the centre of the altar and standing facing east, with head inclined and hands joined, and resting upon the altar, he shall say:

            In a humble spirit and with a contrite heart, may we be accepted of thee, O Lord, and so let our Sacrifice be offered in thy sight, that it may be accepted of thee this day, and be well-pleasing unto thee, O Lord God.

            Here he shall kiss the corporal to the right of the Oblation, and make the sign of the cross over the same and then upon himself, saying: + In the Name of the Father, and of the + Son, and the Holy Ghost. Amen.         

            Then shall the priest kiss the corporal, as above, and turn towards the people, extending and then joining his hands and saying aloud:

            Pray brethren (and sisters) continuing in a low voice for me, that this, my Sacrifice and yours likewise, may be accepted of the Lord our God.         

            In a low voice the clerk shall answer; (or the priest himself shall say)The grace of the Holy Ghost illumine thy (my) heart and thy (my) lips, and the Lord graciously receive this sacrifice of praise at thy (my) hands, for our sins and offences.       

            Instead of turning back to the altar, by his left in the usual manner, the priest shall here turn by his right (that is shall complete the circle) and continuing in a low voice shall say Let us pray and the Secret (or Secrets, one or more according to the number and order of the Collects) with hands extended.

            The Secret, or the first Secret (if there be more than one to be said) shall have the full ending, and the priest shall repeat Let us pray before the second, if two or more are to be said.

            At the end of the last he shall raise his voice saying the concluding words aloud: Throughout all ages, world without end. R. Amen.

            Then shall follow the Preface.

            [In all Masses for the Dead when the body is present, and when Mass is said for the dead on the thirtieth day after the burial, and on all anniversaries of the departed, but not on All Souls’ day nor at any other Masses for the dead, immediately after he has washed his fingers, the priest standing in the centre of the altar and turned towards the altar, with joined hands, shall say aloud:

            Sacrifices and prayers we offer unto thee, O Lord.

            The clerk shall answer, or else the priest himself shall reply:

            Do thou receive them for the souls of those, whose memory we this day recall. Make them, O Lord, to pass from death unto life.

            While this response is being made the priest shall say the prayer In a humble spirit . . . etc., as above.

            After + In the name of the Father and of the + Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen, the priest shall turn to the people and raising his voice somewhat shall say: Pray brethren (and sisters) continuing in a lower voice for the faithful departed.

            R. Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord and let light perpetual shine upon them, which, of old, thou didst promise unto Abraham and his seed.

            If the foregoing response be not made by the clerk, the priest himself shall make it.

Then shall follow Let us pray and the Secret (or Secrets).]   

            With his hands still joined, and without turning to the people, the priest shall say: The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Here he shall disjoin his hands and raise them somewhat, as he says:

            Lift up your hearts

            R. We lift them up unto the Lord.

joining his hands and inclining his head the priest shall say:

            Let us give thanks unto our Lord God.

R. It is meet and right so to do.

            Here follows the Common (or Ferial) Preface, which is said on those occasions to which no Proper Preface is assigned. The priest extends his hands and says: 

            It is truly meet and just, right and salutary that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks unto thee, O Lord holy, Father almighty, everlasting God, Through Christ our Lord; Through whom the Angels praise, the Dominations adore, the Powers fear thy majesty, the heavens and the heavenly Virtues and the blessed Seraphim together, sing thy praise with exultation; with whom, we beseech thee, bid that our voices also be admitted, with suppliant thanksgiving saying:

            Raising his arms somewhat, joining his hands and inclining his head the priest shall continue:

            Holy; Holy; Holy; Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts); Heaven and earth are full of thy glory.

Hosanna in the highest. + Blessed is He, that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            And the priest shall sign himself on the face at Blessed is He 

            Note that on all feasts of our Lady, if the Church be dedicated in her honour, and throughout the octaves of the same when the Mass is of the feast, and at all Votive Masses celebrated in honour of our Lady, the words are to be said as follows:

            + Blessed is the Son of Mary, that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            At the words Holy, Holy, Holythe clerk shall ring the bell thrice.


1. Preface of the NATIVITY of the Lord.

            The preface of the Nativity is said at all Masses of Christmas Day and daily up to and including the Feast of the Circumcision: at all Masses of Our Lady from Christmas to the Feast of the Purification. On the Feast of the Purification: at all Votive Masses of Corpus Xti; and on Corpus Xti: and throughout the octave of Corpus Xti; when Mass is said of that feast.

… everlasting God. Because by the mystery of the Incarnate Word, the new light of thy glory hath shone upon the eyes of our mind: that while we acknowledge Him to be God visibly, we may be caught up by Him to the love of things invisible. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

2. Preface of the EPIPHANY of our Lord.

            The preface of the Epiphany is said on the day of the Epiphany, and on the seven days following

… everlasting God. Because that when thine only-begotten Son manifestly appeared in substance of our flesh, he restored us in the new light of his immortality. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … , etc. (as in the Common Preface).

3. Preface of ASH-WEDNESDAY.

            The preface of Ash-Wednesday is said daily on week-days during Lent (except on any feast which has a proper preface assigned to it): but on the Sundays in Lent and on Maundy Thursday the Ferial Preface is said.

… everlasting God. Who by bodily fasting dost overcome vice, dost raise the mind, and dost bestow virtue and rewards, through Christ our Lord. Through whom the angels praise … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

4. Preface of EASTER.

            The preface of Easter is said on Easter-Even, Easter Day, daily throughout the Octave, on all Sundays up to Ascension Day and on the weekdays that follow them whenever the Sunday Mass is resumed.

… everlasting God. And thee indeed at all times, but chiefly on this day (or at this time), should we praise more gloriously, when: Christ our Passover is sacrificed. For He is the very Lamb which hath taken away the sins of the World. Who, by his death, has destroyed death, and by his rising again hath restored to us life. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy …. etc. (as in the Common Preface)

5. Preface of the ASCENSION.

            The preface of the Ascension is said on the feast of the Ascension, and daily throughout the Octave.

… everlasting God. Through Christ our Lord: Who, after his Resurrection, manifestly appeared to all his disciples, and, in their sight, was taken up into heaven, that he might make us partakers of his Godhead. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, ever-more saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

6. Preface of PENTECOST (Whitsun).

            The preface of Pentecost is said on Whitsunday and throughout the week, and at all Masses of God the Holy Ghost.

… everlasting God. Through Christ our Lord: Who, ascending above all heavens and sitting at thy right-hand, poured forth (this day) the promised Holy Ghost upon the sons of adoption. Wherefore, with exceeding joy, the whole world rejoiceth. The heavenly virtues and the angelic Powers together sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

7. Preface of the HOLY TRINITY.

            The preface of the Holy Trinity is said on Trinity Sunday and on all the Sundays following up to Advent, when the Mass is of the Sunday, and at all Masses of the Holy Trinity throughout the year, but it is not said when the Mass of the Sunday is resumed during the week.

… everlasting God: who, with thine only-begotten Son and the Holy Ghost, are one God, one Lord, not one only Person, but three Persons in one Substance. For that which, by thy revelation we believe of thy glory, the same we understand of thy Son, and the same of the Holy Ghost, without any difference or inequality: that in the confession of the true and everlasting Godhead, distinction in Person, unity in Essence, and equality in Majesty, may be adored: Which angels and archangels, the cherubim and seraphim praise, who cease not to cry with one voice, saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … etc. (as in the Common Preface).


            The preface of the Apostles and Evangelists is said on all feasts of the Apostles and of the Evangelists, and throughout the Octaves of the apostles Peter and Paul and Andrew, except only on the feast of Saint John, Apostle and Evangelist, within the Octave of Christmas. It is said, however, on the Octave of that feast, and on his feast on May 6th. It is also said at a Votive Mass of any Apostle or Evangelist, except within the Octave of a feast to which a Proper Preface is assigned.

… everlasting God; and humbly to entreat thee, that thou, the everlasting Shepherd, wouldst not forsake thy flock, but, through thy blessed Apostles, keep it by thy continual protection, that it may be governed by those same rulers, whom thou host appointed to preside as vicars of thy work and shepherds of the same. And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying: Holy, Holy, Holy … , etc. (as in the Common Preface).

9. Preface of the HOLY CROSS.

            The preface of the Holy Cross is said on both feasts of the Holy Cross (that is on the Invention May 3rd, and on the Exultation, September 14th) and on all commemorations thereof throughout the year. [It is also said according to the Use of York and certain other contemporary English and many continental rites, from Passion Sunday daily until Maundy Thursday inclusive.]

… everlasting God: Who, by the tree of the Cross, didst give salvation unto mankind, that, whence death arose, thence life might rise again: and that he who by a tree overcame, might also by a tree be overcome: Through Christ our Lord. Through whom the angels praise . . . . etc. (as in the Common Preface).

10. Preface of the BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.

            The preface of the Blessed Virgin Mary is said on all her feasts, except that of her Purification (when the Preface of Christmas is said). It is also said throughout the Octaves of her Assumption and of her Nativity, and in all Masses celebrated in her honour, except from Christmas Day till the feast of her Purification.

… everlasting God: And that on the

            Conception (December 8).

            Annunciation (March 25).

            Assumption (August 15).

            Nativity (September 8).

            Visitation (July 2).

            or in Veneration (at her daily Masses).

of the blessed and glorious ever-Virgin Mary, with exulting minds, we should praise, bless and proclaim Thee: In that, by the overshadowing of the Holy Ghost, she conceived thine only-begotten Son, and the glory of her maidenhood yet abiding, shed forth upon this world the light eternal, Jesus Christ our Lord: Through whom the angels praise … etc. (as in the Common Preface).

            [Note that there are ten Proper Prefaces (according to the use of Sarum), and one Ferial (or Common) Preface, and that every preface is in the same form as far as the words . . . everlasting God, and again from the words Holy, Holy, Holy to the end.

            Note also that when the first part of the preface ends with the words … Christ, our Lord, it is always continued as follows … Through whom the Angels praise, the Dominations adore, the Powers fear thy majesty, the heavens and the heavenly Virtues and the blessed Seraphim together, sing thy praise with exultation: With whom, we beseech thee, bid that our voices also be admitted with suppliant thanksgiving saying: Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts): Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. + Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord, Hosanna in the highest.

            Those Prefaces, the first part of which do not conclude with the words … Christ our Lord (that is the preface of the Nativity of our Lord, the Epiphany, Easter, the Ascension, the Apostles and Evangelists) end thus:

            And therefore with angels and archangels, with thrones and dominations, and with all the host of the heavenly army, we sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth (or of Hosts): Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest + Blessed is He that comest in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

            The preface of Pentecost and of the Most Holy Trinity are irregular in form as far as the words, Holy, Holy, Holy …]    

            Straitway when he has said + Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highestthe priest shall begin:


With joined hands and body inclined he shall say:

Therefore most merciful Father, through Jesus Christ, thy son, our Lord, we humbly pray and beseech thee,Here laying his hands palms downwards one on each side of the Corporal, he shall stoop and kiss the altar to the right of the Oblations, and raising himself shall sign thrice over the host and chalice together, with his right hand, the left remaining on the altar, and shall say:

            that thou accept and bless these + gifts, these offerings, these + holy and unspotted sacrifices,

extending his hands he shall continue:

which first we offer unto thee for thy Holy Catholic Church, that thou wouldst vouchsafe to keep it in peace, to guard, unite, and govern it throughout the whole world, together with thy servant our pope … our bishop … and our king … and all the orthodox and those who profess the Catholic and Apostolic Faith.


            (Here he shall recall the living for whom he desires particularly to pray.) Remember, O Lord, thy servants and handmaids … and … He joins his hands and prays silently for them. Then extending his hands he continues and all here present, whose faith and devotion unto thee are known and manifest: for whom we offer unto thee, or who themselves offer unto thee, this sacrifice of praise, for themselves and for all to whom they are bound, for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of their salvation and safety: and who render their vows unto thee, the eternal, living and true God.


*Joining in communion and venerating the memory first of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ He inclines his head and joins his hands as he says these last words, extending them again as he continues:—

            *On the feast of the Nativity and on the seven days following is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day (or most sacred night) whereon the undefiled virginity of blessed Mary brought forth a Saviour for this world: and venerating moreover the memory first of the same glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the feast of the Epiphany and throughout the Octave is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day, whereon thine only-begotten Son, co-eternal with thee in glory, visibly appeared in the body in the verity of our flesh: and venerating moreover the memory, first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On Maundy Thursday is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day whereon our Lord Jesus Christ was betrayed for us, and venerating moreover the memory, first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On Easter-Even and until the Octave of Easter inclusive is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day (or night) of the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh; and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the Feast of the Ascension and throughout the Octave is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day whereon our Lord Jesus Christ, thine only-begotten Son set at the right hand of thy glory, the substance of our frailty united to himself: and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

            *On the Feast of Pentecost, and daily during the week, is said:

            Joining in communion and celebrating the most sacred day of Pentecost whereon the Holy Ghost appeared to the Apostles in tongues of fire: and venerating moreover the memory first of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ*

* As also of thy blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus: Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and of all thy saints: by whose merits and prayers, grant that in all things we may be defended with the help of thy protection.

            He joins his handsThrough the same Christ our Lord. Amen. Here resting his hands, palms downwards, on the Corporal, one on either side of the Oblations he regards the Sacrifice with great veneration and says:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, we beseech thee, O Lord graciously to accept and order our days in peace, and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            On Easter-day and until the Saturday in Easter week inclusive, and from Whitsunday and until the following Saturday inclusive according to the Use of Sarum (but, in many other contemporary Uses, from Easter-Even until Saturday in Easter-week and from the Vigil of Whitsun until the Saturday following, all these days inclusive), is said:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, which we offer unto thee on behalf of those also whom thou host vouchsafed to regenerate by water and the Holy Ghost, granting them remission of their sins, we beseech thee, O Lord, graciously to accept, and order our days in peace and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his handsThrough Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Which Oblationetc….

            On Maundy Thursday is said:

            This Oblation therefore of our bounden service, as also of all thy family, which we offer unto thee because of the day on which our Lord Jesus Christ delivered unto his disciples the celebration of the mysteries of his Body and Blood, we beseech thee, O Lord, graciously to accept and order our days in peace and bid us to be delivered from eternal damnation and to be numbered in the flock of thine elect. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

            Which Oblationetc….

            Continuing with hands joined he says:

            Which Oblation, do thou, O God, we beseech thee, vouchsafe in all things to make He lays his left hand on the corporal and signs with his right thrice over the Oblation + blessed, + approved, + ratified, reasonable and acceptable, that unto us it may become He signs over the host + the Body and over the chalice and + Blood of thy most dearly beloved Son He joins his hands and bows slightly our Lord Jesus Christ.

Then he wipes his forefingers and thumbs on the front corners of the corporal, sayingWho, on the day before he suffered

            On Maundy Thursday after suffered he shall add for our salvation and for that of all men, to wit to-day

            He takes the host between his thumbs and forefingers, saying took bread into his holy and venerable hands,glancing upwards he continues and lifting up his eyes to heaven to thee, God, his almighty Fatherinclining his head slightly he says giving thanks to theethen holding the host in his left hand with thumb and forefinger he shall bless it with his right saying he + blessedthen he shall strike the host lightly with the edge of his right hand (but not so as to break it) saying breakThen holding it with both hands as before, he shall say: and gave to his disciples, saying, Take and eat ye all of this.

            Here leaning somewhat forward and resting his forearms on the altar, he says in one breath and without any pause


            Having so said and still holding the Host, his wrists now resting on the altar, the priest genuflects and adores, rises from his knee, raises the Host above his forehead (still holding it as before) so that it may be seen of the people. Then he reverently replaces it on the Corporal before the chalice, making with it the form of a cross as he sets it down. He again genuflects and adores.

            Keeping the thumb and forefinger of each hand joined and taking care to so keep them, as far as possible, until after the Ablution of his fingers, he at once uncovers the chalice, moving the pall therefrom, between the fore and middle fingers of his right hand, and laying it a little to his right. He then rubs his thumbs and forefingers lightly over the bowl of the chalice in case of crumbs (which action he repeats as often as he has occasion to uncover the chalice after handling the Host) and says: Likewise after supper,

            He takes the chalice in both hands if possible between the fore and middle finger of both hands only, using the right hand above the knop and the left below it, and says: taking also this excellent chalice into his holy and venerable hands, He bows his headalso giving thanks to thee, Steadying the chalice with his left hand, he makes the sign of the cross over it with his right, replacing his right hand on the stem of the chalice immediately afterwards, sayingHe + blessed and gave to his disciples saying: Leaning his forearms on the altar, holding the chalice in both hands (above and below the knop), and slightly raised above the corporal, he pronounces the words of consecration in one breath:


            He sets down the Chalice upon the corporal behind the Host, and resting his hands upon the Corporal, one at each side, genuflects and adores. Rising he raises the Chalice, his right hand on the stem, above the knop, and his left supporting the foot (at least breast-high, but preferably) well above his head, so that it may be seen of the people, and as he elevates it, he saysAs oft as ye do these things ye shall do them in remembrance of me.

            [The clerk shall ring the bell thrice at the elevation of the Sacred Host and thrice at the elevation of the Chalice: the first time as the priest genuflects, the second time as he elevates and the third time as he genuflects again.]         

            The priest sets down the Chalice on the corporal, covers it with the pall, genuflects and adores as before, rises, and extending his arms on either side of his body in the position of the Crucified, the fingers extended (except for the thumbs and forefingers), but not spread, he says:

            Wherefore, O Lord, we also thy servants, together with thy holy people, mindful of the blessed Passion of the same Christ, thy Son, our Lord, as also his Resurrection from hell and glorious Ascension into heaven, do offer unto thine excellent Majesty of thine own gifts and bounty;

            He joins his hands, lays his left on the corporal or on the foot of the Chalice and signs thrice with his right over the Host and Chalice together, sayingA pure + Host, a holy + Host, a spotless + Host, the Holy + Bread Here he signs once over the Hostof eternal lifeand once over the Chalice and the + Chalice of everlasting salvation.

            Extending his hands before his breast he continues:

            Upon which vouchsafe to look with a favourable and gracious countenance and to accept them, as thou didst vouchsafe to accept the gifts of thy just servant Abel, and the sacrifice of our patriarch Abraham, and the holy sacrifice, the spotless host, which thy high-priest Melchisedech offered unto thee.

            Bowing profoundly over the altar his hands laid, the right over the left crossed upon his breast the fingers (except for the thumbs and forefingers which are kept joined) extended and laid lattice-wise across one another, he says:

            We humbly beseech thee, almighty God, command thou these to be brought by the hands of thy holy Angel to thine Altar on high, in the presence of thy divine Majesty, that as many of usLaying his hands on the Corporal, one on each side, he kisses the altar to the right of the Sacrifice as by the partaking of this altar, shall receive the most sacred With his left hand still resting on the Corporal, or on the foot of the Chalice, he signs with his right once over the Host and once over the Chalice, saying: + Body and + Blood of thy SonHe signs himself on the face, continuing: may be fulfilled with all heavenly benediction and grace; He joins his hands Through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen.


            Remember, also, O Lord, thy servants and handmaids … and … who have gone before us with the sign of faith and rest in the sleep of peace.

            He joins his hands and prays awhile in silence for those whom he intends to pray, then extending his hands he proceeds: To them, O Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, we beseech thee to grant a place of refreshment, light and peace.

            He bows slightly and joins his hands:

            Through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen.

            Laying his left hand either on the altar, or on his breast, he strikes his breast, with his right hand, once, saying raising his voice somewhat:

            To us sinners also, Extending his hands, he proceeds secretly: trusting in the multitude of thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part and fellowship with thy holy Apostles and Martyrs: with John, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicitas, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and with all thy saints: within whose fellowship we beseech thee admit us, not weighing our merit, but granting us forgiveness. He joins his hands. Through Christ our Lord, by whom, O Lord, all these good things, thou dost ever create,

            Laying his left hand on the Corporal, he signs with his right thrice over the Host and Chalice together, saying dost + sanctify, + quicken, + bless, and bestow upon us. Uncovering the Chalice with his right hand, he sets down the pall on the altar to his right, genuflects, rises, takes the Host with his right thumb and forefinger and steadying the Chalice at the knop, or at its foot with his left hand, signs five times with the Host over the Chalice, in the manner following:—

firstly a large cross over the Chalice (the four arms of the cross extending beyond the bowl), secondly from lip to lip of the Chalice, thirdly a cross made wholly within the bowl of the Chalice, fourthly a cross similar to the first, fifthly one made in front of the Chalice, saying:

            Through + him, and with + him, and in + him, is unto thee, God the Father + almighty, in the unity of the Holy + GhostRaising the Chalice slightly above the Corporal between the fore and middle fingers (if possible) of his left hand and holding the Host above it with his right, he says: All honour and gloryHe replaces the Host on the Corporal, rubs his thumbs and forefingers lightly over the bowl of the Chalice, covers the Chalice with the pall, genuflects, rises and with his hands resting upon the Corporal, one on each side, says, aloud:

            Throughout all ages, world without end.

            R. Amen.

            Let us pray, Commanded by saving precepts and taught by divine institution, we are bold to say:

            Raising his hands from the altar and extending them, he says:

            Our Father which (or who) art in heaven. Hallowed be thy Name, Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us.

            And lead us not into temptation.

            R. But deliver us from evil.

            The priest says secretly: Amen.

            The priest takes the paten from beneath the Corporal holding it between his right fore and middle fingers, kisses it, places it first before his left eye, then before his right eye, makes a large sign of the cross with it in front of his face, slides it under the Host on the Corporal, continuing, meanwhile, in a low voice,

            Deliver us, O Lord, we beseech thee, from all evils, past, present, and to come, and at the intercession of the blessed and glorious ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and thy blessed apostles Peter and Paul and Andrew with all thy saints, favourably grant peace in our days, that by the help of thine availing mercy, we may ever be free from sin and safe from all distress.

            Here he uncovers the Chalice, genuflects, takes up the Host with his right thumb and forefinger, holds it over the Chalice bowl with the thumbs and forefingers of both hands and breaks it into three parts.

            At the first fraction, which divides the Host down the centre into two halves, he says:

            Through the same Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord.

            He transfers the half from his right hand to his left, and holding both portions between the left thumb and forefingers, he breaks off a third portion from one of them with his right hand, and holding this third portion (which is called the “particle”) in his right hand, and the other two portions in his left (keeping both hands well over the bowl of the Chalice all the while in case of crumbs), he says:

            Who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God. He raises his voice and continues aloud:— 

            Throughout all ages, world without end.

R. Amen.

            With the particle he makes three signs of the Cross over the Chalice sayingThe peace + of the Lord be + alway with + you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Holding the three portions of the Host in both hands as before, he says:

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Have mercy upon us.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Have mercy upon us.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

Grant us peace.

            Making the sign of the cross over the Chalice with the particle he places it within the Chalice saying in a low voice:

May this most holy commixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto me, and to all who receive it, health of mind and body and a wholesome preparation for attaining worthily unto eternal life. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

But in Masses for the departed—“Agnus Dei” is said thus:

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

                        Grant them rest.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

            Grant them rest.

            O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world:

            Grant them rest eternal.

            And the Commixture is then made as above.

            [If the Pax be given the priest now sets down upon the paten the other two portions of the Host, rubs his forefingers and thumbs over the bowl of the Chalice, covers the Chalice with the pall, genuflects and says the prayer following:

            O Lord, Holy Father, almighty and everlasting God, Grant that I so worthily receive this most holy Body and Blood of thy Son our Lord’, Jesus, Christ, that thereby I be found fit to obtain remission of all my sins, to be filled with thy Holy Spirit, and to have thy peace: Because thou art God alone and there is none else beside thee, whose kingdom remaineth glorious, world without end. Amen.

            Then the priest shall kiss the corporal to the right of the paten, the top of the Chalice and afterwards the clerk sayingPeace be to thee and to the Church of God.

R. And with thy spirit.

            After the “Pax” has been given (or while the people are receiving it) the priest shall take up both portions of the Host from the paten and holding them between his thumbs and forefingers over the paten shall ‘say the following three prayers before he communicates himself.]

            And if the “Pax” be not given, the priest having, as above directed, placed the particle within the Chalice, having covered the Chalice with the pall using his right forefinger and middle finger as to do, and genuflected, says the three prayers following before he communicates himself, holding, as he does, both portions of the Host between his two thumbs and forefingers over the paten, and saying:

            O God the Father, fount and source of all goodness, who, moved by pity, didst will that thine only begotten Son, for our sakes should descend to this lower world and take the flesh which I, an unworthy and most wretched sinner, hold here in my hands: Here he shall incline his head somewhat I adore thee: I glorify thee: with the whole intent of my heart and mind I praise thee: and I pray that thou desert not us thy servants, but blot out our sins, that so we may avail to serve thee the only living and true God with a pure heart and a chaste body. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

            O Lord Jesu Christ, who, by the will of the Father and the co-operation of the Holy Ghost, hast, through thy death, given life unto the world, deliver me by this thy most sacred Body and Blood, from all mine iniquities and from every evil: and make me ever to obey thy commandments and suffer me not to be for ever separated from thee O Saviour of the world. Who with the same God the Father and the same Holy Ghost livest and reignest God, throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.

            Let not the sacrament of thy Body and Blood, O Lord Jesu Christ which, though unworthy, I receive, be unto me for judgment and condemnation, but, of thy goodness, may it avail for the salvation of my body and soul. Amen.

            Here inclining profoundly the priest shall address the Host saying in a low tone:

            Hail evermore, Most Holy Flesh of Christ: To me, before and above all things, the sum of delight.

[And the clerk shall ring the bell thrice.]

            The priest inclining his head over the paten shall receive both parts of the Host which he has meanwhile been holding with the thumbs and forefingers of his hands. As he receives he shall make the sign of the cross with the Host before his face and say:

            The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto me a sinner the Way and the Life + In the Name of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            The priest shall then uncover the Chalice, genuflect, rise (and rub his thumbs and forefingers over it, in case of crumbs) and shall take the paten between the first and middle finger of his right hand and run the edge of the paten lightly over that portion of the Corporal whereon the Host has lain, using the tip of his left forefinger to collect on the paten such small crumbs or fragments, if any there be, of the Host from the Corporal. Then having rubbed his left thumb and forefinger together over the paten, he shall transfer the paten to his left hand, holding it between the first and middle finger, and with his right thumb shall wipe any crumbs from the paten into the Chalice and replace the paten in front of the Chalice on the Corporal, Then, with hands joined before his breast, he shall say, with great devotion to the Blood:

            Hail evermore, Celestial Draught. To me, before and above all things, the sum of delight.

            Then he shall receive the contents of the Chalice together with the particle therein, making first the sign of the cross with the Chalice before his face, and saying:    

            The Body and Blood of our Lord Jesu Christ avail to me a sinner for an everlasting remedy unto life eternal. + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Having set down the Chalice, the priest shall join his hands and remain for a brief space in meditation on the most Holy Sacrament: during which space, according to the Use of Sarum, the prayer following (which is not found in the contemporary uses or in that of the Roman rite), is appointed to be said:

            I give thanks unto thee, O Lord, holy Father, almighty everlasting God, who hast refreshed me with the Most Holy Body and Blood of thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and I pray that this sacrament of our salvation, which I an unworthy sinner have received, may not bring to me judgment or condemnation in accordance with my deserts, but may profit my body and soul unto life eternal. Amen.

            Then holding the Chalice between the fore and middle finger of his right hand, he shall extend, to the full, his right arm towards the Epistle end of the altar and the clerk shall approach and pour a little wine into the Chalice which the priest shall then drink. Then shall the priest say:

            What we have taken with our mouth, O Lord, may we receive with a pure heart: and, from a temporal gift, be it made unto us an eternal remedy.

            Then turning by his right the priest shall go towards the Epistle end of the altar, holding the Chalice so that his thumbs and forefingers are joined over the Chalice-bowl, and taking the purificator with him. Resting the Chalice on the altar and laying the purificator across the foot of the Chalice on that side nearest to himself, with his thumbs and forefingers held over the Chalice-bowl, he shall cause the clerk to pour, first a little wine and then rather more water over his thumbs and forefingers into the Chalice. Setting down the Chalice, he shall dry his hands on the purificator and then taking up the Chalice and turning by his left, he shall go to the centre of the altar and receive the ablution revolving the Chalice completely as he drinks from it, so that the whole interior is cleansed.

            He shall then set down the Chalice somewhat off the corporal, dry his lips with the purificator and shall say:

            May this Communion, O Lord, cleanse us from sin, and make us to be partakers of the heavenly healing.

            Then he shall spread the purificator over the bowl of the Chalice, or shall fold it and place it within the bowl of the Chalice, set the paten thereon, cover the paten with the pall, fold the corporal, place it inside the burse, and lay the burse on top of the vessels, arranging them in the midst of the altar.  

            [While the priest dries the Chalice the clerk shall carry the missal, on its desk or cushion, to the Epistle end of the altar, placing it there as at the beginning of the Mass.]

            Having arranged the vessels as above directed, the priest with joined hands shall incline before the cross on the altar and shall say:

            Let us adore the sign of the Cross, whereby we have received the Sacrament of Salvation.

            Having said which in the midst of the altar, the priest shall cross to the Epistle end and shall read the Communion. At the conclusion of which he shall make the sign of the cross upon his face.

            Then turning by his left he shall go to the midst of the altar, kiss it and turning by his right to the people, raising slightly and disjoining, and then joining his hands, shall salute them in the usual manner, saying:

            The Lord be with you.

            R. And with thy spirit.

            Turning back by his left he shall go to the book and read the Postcommunion (one or more, according to the number and order of the Collects and Secrets). At the conclusion of the last Postcommunion he shall make the sign of the cross upon his face and turning again to the people, in the manner above described, shall say:

            The Lord be with you.

R. And with thy spirit.

            Ite missa est.

or (if Gloria in excelsis have not been said at the beginning of the Mass)

            Let us bless the Lord.

R. Thanks be to God.

            But in Masses for the Departed, instead of Ite Missa est, or Let us bless the Lord, there is said:

            May they rest in peace.

            R. Amen.

            Which said the priest turns back to the altar, and standing in the midst, with joined hands, says secretly:

            May the obedient performance of my bounden duty be pleasing unto thee, O Holy Trinity, and grant that the Sacrifice which I unworthy have offered in the sight of thy Majesty may be acceptable to thee, and through thy mercy obtain thy gracious favour for me and for all for whom I have offered it up. Who livest and reignest God throughout all ages, World without end. Amen.

            Then raising his voice the priest shall say aloud:

            May almighty God bless you,

            laying his hands upon the altar, palms downwards, he shall kiss the altar and turn by his right to the people and shall bless them, saying:

            + The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

R. Amen.

            Turning back to the altar by the right (i.e., completing the circle as he did when saying the “Orate Fratres et Sorores” before the Secret), he shall kiss the altar as before and sign himself on the face, saying secretly:

            + In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

            Then with both hands, he shall draw up his amice together with his hood over his head, take the vessels, turn by his right, come down from the altar and (with the clerk) make a reverence and then (preceded by the clerk) return to the place where he vested before the Mass.

            While returning from the altar the priest shall say in a low voice the first fourteen verses of Saint John’s Gospel at the conclusion of which the response is made:

            Thanks be to God.

            N.B. This last Gospelaccording to the use of Sarum, is invariably recited at the conclusion of Mass, except only after the third Mass of the Nativity of our Lord, when, in its place, the Gospel from the Feast of the Annunciation of our Lady is said.

            And here it should be noted that when any priest is required to celebrate Holy Mass more than once in a day, he shall not receive either Ablution of the Chalice till after he shall have said the last Mass, but on communicating himself he shall be more than otherwise at pains reverently to consume the Blood to the very last drop, revolving the bowl of the chalice between his lips to ensure that he so do.

            He shall not then wipe the chalice or his own lips, but shall open and spread the purificator across the bowl of the Chalice, shall set the paten thereon (and if he then lay the host for the next Mass on the paten shall cover the same with the pall), shall leave the corporal spread on the altar, the sacred vessels standing on it and shall lay the burse upon them.

            At the next Mass he shall be careful not to wipe the chalice before pouring in the wine.

Printed for the author at Runwell St. Mary, 1952, digitized by Richard Mammana in 2019 from a personal copy.

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Filed under Anglo-Catholicism, Bibliography, Book of Common Prayer, Liturgy

Demonstrated Eucharist, by Dom Gregory Dix (undated, c. 1955)

Statement of Dom Morris, Abbot, Nashdom Abbey:

I am grateful for your courtesy in asking my permission to publish this material in the way that you suggest. It is my duty to take into account what would have been the probable wishes of Dom Gregory in the matter. On the negative side, I know that he declined an offer from a weekly periodical in this country called “Everybody’s” to write an article on the subject, although I am not clear as to his reasons for this refusal. Also, I think it probable that in addressing a wider public through the medium of the printed word, he would have introduced greater safeguards, particularly on the subject of the ministry, in case he should seem to give countenance to celebrations by other than bishops in the Apostolical succession or by episcopally ordained priests. He would have emphasised that the early evidence is overwhelming in favor of confining the power of celebration of the Eucharist to such bishops or by deputation to their presbyters.

On the other hand, I know from experience that such demonstrations can be a powerful means of increasing the knowledge, and appreciation of and devotion to the Eucharist, which was of course an end very dear to Dom Gregory’s heart. His own deep devotion centred round the Eucharist and it was his great desire that others should come to an ever full appreciation of our Lord’s gift of Himself in the Sacrament and of the full intent of His words “This is my Body,” and “this is my Blood.”

In view of these considerations, I gladly agree to the publication of the material by the Missionary Society in the form you suggest.


Let us just say a prayer; you needn’t kneel down. “O God, who in a wonderful sacrament hast left unto us a memorial of thy Passion: grant us, we beseech thee, so to venerate the sacred mysteries of thy Body and Blood, that we may ever perceive within ourselves the fruit of thy redemption. Who livest and reignest God, world without end. Amen.”

We are here tonight to study a little more deeply and a little more meaningfully, and a little more responsively into something that we all know well. That service which ever since the night before Calvary has been the heart and the core and the power of Christian living. That service which has many names; the Holy Communion, which is a name given from one part of what we do; or the Holy Sacrifice or the Holy Offering or Oblation, which is given from another part of what we do; or the Breaking of Bread, a name from yet another part of what we do; or the Lord’s Supper, a name given to remind us of how that rite originated, how it began; or the Holy Eucharist or Thanksgiving, which reminds us of the special nature of the prayer which is the central thing in it; or that simple little word the Mass, which is a useful word, because it doesn’t mean any of those particular things; it means them all together.

We use different names but we need never quarrel with anybody about the name they give it. They are all true and they all simply define the obedience that we pay to our Lord’s last command before He died to those whom He called His own. Do this for the recalling of me.

            And you know how, if you want to understand a rather elaborate and complex thing, you have got to get it in its original form, in its simplest beginning. When you have seen that fundamental, basic meaning then the more elaborate form begins to seem simple. And so I want you to think, to start with, of the Eucharistic Service, the Mass, the Holy Communion Service as we know it. Think of it in the form you go through Sunday by Sunday (and please God oftener) in the Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church. Has it never struck you as being rather an odd thing about that service: That the service which is headed the administration of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion doesn’t begin to talk, or to think, or to do anything about Holy Communion ’til it’s half over? It isn’t merely that it doesn’t mention the word; it doesn’t speak of or do anything about the bread and the wine; it doesn’t begin to prepare for Holy Communion until after the Creed. That rather odd fact comes down in all the liturgical services of Christendom for the same reason. Historically the eucharistic rites of all Christendom come down from two distinct, separate services, which had different origins, served different purposes, and were attended by rather different people, very often held at different times. 

The first part of the service comes straight down from the synagogue service of our Lord’s time and the apostle’s time. I wish we had time tonight to dip into that very interesting derivation and show how it represents to us just that worship that our Lord, himself, as a boy and as a man went to week by week at Nazareth. The service at which he preached, if you’ll read the fourth chapter of St. Luke’s Gospel; the service which the Apostles were quite accustomed to as their public worship and which quite naturally after the Resurrection and Ascension, they continued as, so to speak, their Christian propaganda service. But we haven’t time for that tonight. And so, I want you in your mind to draw a thickline after the creed in the ordinary Eucharistic office that you know; and think only of the second half of the service; that doesn’t come from the synagogue service, that doesn’t come from anything done in publicly. It comes from something done strictly privately in the upper room of a private house, the last supper of the Lord with His own. Now I’m going to read you the earliest account that we have of what happened at that supper. This was written down in the form we have now by St. Paul in his letter to the Corinthian Christians, which he write in the spring of A.D. 53—I Corinthians 11. And I shall read it, not quite as it is written in the King James version, but translated quite literally from St. Paul’s Greek. “For I handed on to you as that which I had received from he Lord how that the Lord Jesus in the night in which he was betrayed to break; and when he had given thanks, he braked it and said, This is my body which is for you, do this for the recalling of me.” In the same way this cup, also, after supper saying, “This is the new covenant in my blood. This do whenever you drink it for the recalling of me.”” And then St. Paul himself goes on to say, “For as often as you eat this break or drink this cup you proclaim the Lord’s death ’til he come.”

The first of our gospels, St. Mark’s gospel, was written down as we have it now, about 15 years later than that. So this is the earliest account. And you’ll notice St. Paul says that this isn’t the first time he tells the Corinthians about it all; years ago when he first came to Corinth he told them of it in this form. And this is the form in which he first learnt about it when he himself was baptized and confirmed as a Christian at Damascus; that was perhaps 5 years, perhaps even less, from the day of the last supper itself. And he knew St. Peter and all the others who had been there at the supper and so you can take it that this account of St. Paul’s is equivalent to quite first hand evidence of what happened at the last supper.

Now, I suppose, all of us take it for granted when we read that story either in the gospel or in St. Paul that when our Lord said “Do this for the recalling of me,” he was commending them to do something quite new which they had never seen before, the breaking of bread and the blessing of the cup, which they would never have dreamed of doing again unless he had especially told them to do it. But, as a matter of fact, that’s quite wrong. At the beginning of supper our Lord took bread and he blessed it and he broke it and he gave it. And after supper he took the cup and he blessed it and he gave it. Now those were two perfectly ordinary Jewish actions. When he took the bread and blessed and brake it at the beginning of supper the apostles wouldn’t be the least surprised. That was the ordinary Jewish grace before meals. Every night since they were little boys they had watched their fathers take bread, take one of the little flat Jewish loaves and break it and bless it with a special blessing which ran: “Blessed be thou, O Lord God, King of the universe, who bringest forth bread from the earth.” And then their father would take a little piece and give a little broken fragment of the bread to everybody at the supper table. All their lives they had seen that done every night, and, I suppose, every time they had eaten with our Lord together they had watched him do it. And so, there was nothing new at all as far as that was concerned. What was new—what was quite different—was the meaning that our Lord gave it. He took the bread, he brake it, he blessed it, and he gave it. And as they were each eating a little broken fragment of bread as their ancestors had done right back to the days when Israel was in the desert, one or two thousand years before in the desert rite of hospitality, he suddenly said something quite new, “This is my body which is given for you.” Now “do this” is not a command to do anything new, it is a command to do the old accustomed rites, the thing they knew so well, with a quite new meaning:—“For the recalling of me.” And then comes supper and the story we know so well of Judas’ leaving the supper and going out and St. Peter saying that he’ll never deny our Lord and our Lord’s washing his disciples’ feet and the rest of the story we all know so well. And then after supper in the same way the cup; St. Paul doesn’t say what cup; he didn’t have to. Not every night at supper, but only on the occasions when supper had a little formality—a father’s or mother’s birthday or a time when you had visitors in and a [2/3] bit of a party or on the night before a great religious feast like the Passover or the Feast of the Tabernacles—the drink at the end of the supper took a slightly different form. The ordinary form was this: the father of the family or host of his guests stood up at the end of supper and said, “Let us give thanks to our Lord God.” And the guests answered, “It is meet and right.” And then the host chanted a long grace which gave thanks to God not only for the meal that they had just had but for God’s gift to his people of the Holy Land and of his law and above all for his covenant with his people—that which made Israel a nation, that which was the very meaning and foundation of life and religion and nationality to a Jew—the covenant of God. At the end of this thanksgiving to God for his mercy to his people the guests or the family chanted “Amen.” Well now, on, as I say, rather formal family occasions, that was sung over a cup of mingled wine and water and then at the end of this when they sang Amen, the father or the host handed it all around the table and it was passed like a loving cup as they all stood and they each took a sip from it. Well, after supper they called that cup of wine and water quite simply “the cup of blessing.” And you remember St. Paul used this normal Jewish name when he wrote “the cup of blessing which we bless is it not a communion—a sharing—of the blood of Christ?” And so our Lord blessed the cup of blessing at the end of supper with the old Jewish thanksgiving for God’s mercies to his people and for the old covenant and then as the cup is being handed round he says something that is very startling indeed, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood.” All through the centuries Israel had lived by its covenant and so all through the centuries the prophets had warned them that God one day would raise up a Christ, a Messiah, a Deliverer who would bring new Israel, give Israel a new covenant, the final covenant which God would make. And now it’s come, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood.” He is claiming to be not only the priest who shall found and set up the new covenant, but the sacrificed victim—because you could not make a covenant with God without offering a victim in sacrifice. He is going to be the priest who is going to offer himself in sacrifice the next morning. “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Whenever you drink it do so for the recalling of me.” Now there is the last supper as our Lord does it. You might call it seven actions in two groups; one before supper, one after supper. He took bread, he blessed bread, he broke bread, he gave bread. Then comes supper. Then he took the cup, he blessed the cup, he gave the cup. Seven actions, four before, three after supper, and in between, the supper. And there doesn’t seem to be any doubt that for the first twenty or thirty years of Christian history that was the way the Christians did it. They took bread and blessed it, broke it and gave it at the beginning of the meal. Then came the meal. Then came the taking and blessing and giving of a cup. Just like that. St. Paul when he writes to the Corinthians assumes that’s the way that Christians there do the Eucharist, the Lord’s Supper. You remember had a lot of fault to find with the Corinthians about the way they were doing it. He says they were doing it in a very unseemly way, and some of them are getting drunk and some of them are quarreling and some of them don’t get anything to eat at the supper and the selfish and most greedy eat more than enough.

You can see what’s happened. The Jews had a long tradition of religious meals and of right and proper behaviour at them. But Christianity’s spreading now among the Greeks, the Gentiles—Corinth was a Greek city and the Gentiles had a tradition of feasts in honour of the Gods which were just occasions of merry-making with a good deal of drunkenness and disorder. You can see that they were treating the Christian Lord’s Supper as a heathen religious meal. So it began reverently enough. Their bishops—their presbyters—take bread and bless it, break it and give it. Then comes the meal and it’s all rather noisy and sociable and festive and some of them start quarrelling, and it’s all very undignified. And the second half of their [3/4] communion—the blessing of the chalice and the partaking of the communion of our Lord’s blood—is still to follow after the meal. By the time they come to that they’re not at all in a right state to have it. And so somewhere in the next ten years a change was made. You see the things to which our Lord had attached such special meaning. This is my body which is given for you, this cup is the new covenant in my blood. They are, so to speak, isolated at the beginning and end of the meal and the supper is what is causing scandal and what is becoming a source of disorder in the Church and our Lord attributed no special meaning to the supper at all. It was what came before and after it. And so somewhere in the early 60s, or before the year 70 anyhow, the Apostolic Church had come to the conclusion that the supper was what was causing the trouble, and it was the supper that they must leave out. And right after that just the things, the actions which our Lord had commanded to be done for the recalling of Him were combined. Now look at what you get if you bring these two sets of actions together: you take bread, you break bread, you bless bread, you give bread, you take a cup, you bless a cup, you give a cup. That includes the whole of what was commanded by our Lord for the recalling of him. If you notice, you do practically everything in it twice over. And so they made a quite simple rearrangement. They took bread and wine together; they blessed bread and wine together; then they broke the bread and then they gave the bread and wine together. Just like that. It included still all the actions about which our Lord had said “Do this.” And it included them in a compact sensible order. Now that way of doing the Eucharist seems to have been devised somewhere between the writing of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Corinthians in 53 A.D. and the writing of St. Mark’s Gospel somewhere about 67 or 68.

And so at the end of the Apostolic Age you get that rearrangement which is the way that all Christians have done it ever since. There they had, so to speak, the skeleton—the absolute basic foundation—of all Eucharistic rites that contain the whole action that our Lord told us to do for the recalling of him. You take bread and wine, you bless bread and wine, you break bread, you give bread and wine. Or the usual words that we normally use: offertory, consecration prayer, fraction (the breaking of the bread), communion. Our Lord’s own actions we repeat in a compact way. Of course, we are used to a service that’s got a good deal more than that bare skeleton, that bare outline. We have things like the confession and absolution, prayers like the thanksgiving and the offering. When you come to think of it, all those are “extra” prayers. They are rather concerned, not so much with doing, because our Lord didn’t say pray this or think this or feel this. It is an action. It is Do this. They are, so to speak, more concerned with what I feel about doing this. They are, so to speak, its reaction on me expressed in words. I feel very unworthy of coming to communion and so I say the confession. I am comforted by listening to the comfortable words. I feel that I want to worship God and so I say the Sanctus. I feel thankful and grateful for receiving my communion so I join in the thanksgiving and so on. But the actual acts that our Lord commanded are confined to those four things: offertory, prayer (consecration prayer), breaking of the bread, giving of the bread and wine together.

IV. The Demonstration

            The Demonstration begins with no one on stage. Before it begins, each participant should conceal on his person one Host, one Bottle, and one Sacrament Box. The Archdeacon and other Deacons enter one or two at a time from all points designated as doors, greet each other, and put on their stoles immediately. The Deacons go to the doors to prevent the entry of any but baptized and confirmed communicants, while the Archdeacon places a Stole on each chair. The clergy and laity begin to come in one, two, or three at a time, and greet each other happily. Bishop and Priests put on stoles and sit down, while Laity take their stand, (the Priests always stand whenever the Bishop stands, and sit when he sits,) and the Bishop sings:


The rest of the participants all sing this response:


The Bishop and the Priests sit. The Assisting Deacon spreads the Altar Cloth on the Altar, passing round the end of the row of Priests, and never breaking through the semi-circle formed by the Bishop and Priests. (See paths A on diagram.) The Archdeacon brings the Chalice, Bowl and Paten from the Credence Table, and after giving the Chalice to the Assisting Deacon, they take their places at positions C and D respectively. Note that whenever the Chalice is carried by itself, it is held with one hand on each handle.

The first main Act of the Service—The Offertory

            The adult Laity (men first, then the women) pass by along line E, each placing his Host on the Paten, and then “emptying” his Bottle into the Chalice. (For the purposes of the demonstration, the Bottles do not contain, as they did in the second century, a few drops of wine, but even though they do not the people go through the pouring motions. When the adult Laity are through, the Children (who are too poor to bring host or wine, since they are supported entirely by the alms of the Church) come up and “pour” water into the Chalice. The Archdeacon and the Assisting Deacon turn and place the Chalice and Paten respectively in positions K and J on the Altar. The Clergy then make their own offering in both kinds in the following order—Bishop, Priests, Archdeacon, and Assisting Deacon, and Deacons. (Note that the Deacons stay guarding the doors all during the service, except when they leave them momentarily three times.) The Deacons return to the doors, the Archdeacon and Assisting Deacon place the two or three hosts necessary for the conduct of the service directly on the altar cloth at position F, and place the Chalice at position G. The Archdeacon carries the surplus hosts on the Patent to the Credence Table, while the Assisting Deacon gets the Scroll off the Extra Table. (Note that the Bishop and Priests sit throughout the Offertory, except when they make their own offerings.)

The Second Main Act of the Service—The Prayer (of Consecration)

The Archdeacon, returning to his place, receives the scroll from the Assisting Deacon, who is back in his place. The Archdeacon, opening it, holds it where the Bishop can see it easily. The Bishop and the Priests arise, and the Bishop begins the chant with the versicles (V), and the people sing the responses (R). The ancient Jewish custom of bowing at the words “Lord God” in the third V. is observed by all.

            At the words “Lift up your hearts…” in the Prayer, all present except the archdeacon, who is holding the scroll) assume the Jewish posture of prayer which is used by the early Christians. (See Photograph #4). After the words “… and demonstrate the resurrection…” there is a slight pause in the singing while the Bishop and Priests arrange themselves around the Altar with their hands extended over the elements for the actual consecration. (See Photograph #5.) After the words “… do my recalling,” Bishop and Priests step back to their places; each just in front of his chair, and resume the prayer posture. When the Bishop finishes the prayer, all sing the response “Amen,” and the Bishop and Priests then sit.

The Third Main Act—The Fraction

The Assisting Deacon takes the Scroll from the Archdeacon and puts it back on the Extra Table, then proceeds to the Altar, meeting there the Archdeacon, who has gone to the Credence and has brought the empty Second Paten from there (or emptied the one used at the Offertory and brought it to the Altar again). The consecrated Hosts are placed on the Paten, and the Archdeacon and Assisting Deacon break them into small pieces quickly, but reverently.

The Fourth Main Act—The Communion

The Communion is taken first by the Bishop, the Archdeacon carrying the Patent and the Assisting Deacon carrying the Chalice. The Bishop, still seated, communicates himself from the Paten held by the Archdeacon, and then receives the administration of the Chalice at the hands of the Assisting Deacon. The Bishop and Priests rise, and the Bishop receives the Paten from the Archdeacon (who steps back into position B after the Bishop receives the Host) and administers the Host to him. The Bishop then carries the Paten to the Priests (in any convenient order), who, standing each in his respective place, communicate themselves. By the time the last Priest is communicated, the Deacons and the Assisting Deacon have lined up along line E in the diagram, and the Bishop goes to administer the Host to them. Immediately after the Bishop administered the Host to the Archdeacon, the Assisting Deacon communicated him from the Chalice. The Archdeacon then took the Chalice and followed along right behind the Bishop, communicating the Priests and Deacons. The Bishop and the Archdeacon now take their places at C and D respectively, and the people (men and boys, then women and girls) pass by in order, each person stopping and facing first the Bishop and then the Archdeacon to receive his Communion. When communicated, each Deacon and lay person returns to his place. When the Bishop finishes administering the Host, he puts the Paten on the Altar (at H), returns to his throne, and sits down, the Priests sitting down at the same time. The Archdeacon returns the Chalice to position G on the Altar, and stands at B.

The lay people (in the same order as before) pass by the Archdeacon, who places a piece of the Host in the Sacrament Box carried by each person. The Archdeacon then returns the Patent to position F on the Altar, and the Clergy take their portions of the Sacrament in this order: Bishop, Priests, Archdeacon, Assisting Deacon, and other Deacons. The Bishop and Priests consume the remaining elements, the Archdeacon places the emptied Chalice and Paten on the Credence Table, the Assisting Deacon folds the Altar Cloth and places it on the Extra Table, and all return to their original places. The Archdeacon then sings:


and all respond:


The clergy remove their stoles, the Archdeacon places them on the Extra Table, and all depart.


I. On the manner of singing the Prayer:

            If the “Bishop” is unfamiliar with the Plainsong Notation of the Scroll, he can get the general idea from number 734 in the Hymnal 1940 which shows the second and third sets of versicles and responses in modern notation. The only notes used in the Prayer which are not used in No. 734 are those at the very end, for instance the two notes of the word “ever” which would be C and B respectively in the key in which No. 734 is written. The Plainsong Notation merely acknowledges complete freedom in transposing the tune up or down to fit the voice of the singer.

II. On the Manner of Communicating.

            The early Christians always signed themselves with the Sign of the Cross before receiving the Host, and again before receiving the Chalice. In the case of a Bishop or Priest, who administers the Host to himself, it is made with the particle between the fingers, saying as he signs the Cross, these words of administration: “The Bread of Heaven in Christ Jesus,” and also saying, after he consumes the Host, “Amen.” Deacons and laity, who receive the Host from the Bishop, sign themselves with the empty hand as we do today, then receive the Host directly on the tongue, having tilted the head back slightly and extended the tongue out a little over the lower lip. All reply “Amen” to the words of administration immediately after consuming the particle. 

            Every one receives the Chalice in the same way, since each person receives it from some one else. Having signed the Cross, the person receives three sips of the Wine, one at the mention of the name of each Person of the Blessed Trinity in the following words of administration pronounced by the person holding the Chalice: “In God the Father Almighty, and in Christ Jesus, and in the Holy Spirit, in the Holy Church.” The one who has received replies immediately, “Amen.”

            All receive standing, except the Bishop.


1. List of characters—all parts may be taken by any one, regardless of ecclesiastical status, since this is not to be a valid celebration of the Holy Communion.

a. Men: (1) Bishop—one

(2) Priests—any even number up to twelve

(3) Archdeacon—one

(4) Deacons—any number from two to six

(5) Laity—a token number, usually kept small for convenience, say 10 or 15.

b. Women—used as laity, in numbers about equal to the number of men used in this capacity.

c. Children—one or two—to represent the pauper, orphaned children of martyrs.

2.         Equipment needed

a.         Communion vessels.

            (1) Chalice—one—of the two-handled, loving-cup type, properly silver, and best about 6 inches tall.

            (2) Paten—one or two—circular plates about 8 to 12 inches across, properly silver.

b.         Offertory

(1) Hosts—one for each adult participant—small biscuits, roughly 1 to 1 ½ inches in diameter and about ½ inch thick.

(2) Small bottles—one for each participant, regardless of age.

(3) Bowl.

c.         Vestments—stoles only, one for Bishop, Priests, and Deacons. (These may be improvised easily from inexpensive cloth, but the use of actual stoles, if available, is quite proper.

d.         Furniture

(1) Altar—one—a small table, approximately the size of a card table.

(2) Chairs—one each for Bishop and Priests.

(3) Credence Table—one—small table, large enough to hold the Paten (or Patens) and the Chalice.

(4) Extra Table—one—any type, but large enough to hold Stoles, Altar Cloth, and Scroll.

e.         Miscellaneous

(1) Scroll—one—containing the Plainsong setting of the Prayer. 

(2) Altar cloth—one—any ordinary plain white tablecloth.

(3) Sacrament boxes—one for each participant—about the size of small matchboxes, preferably white.


A. Bishop’s chair

B. Archdeacon’s position (no chair)

C. Deacon’s position (for convenience this deacon will be called the Assisting Deacon) (no chair)

D. Priests’ chairs

E. Altar

F. Credence Table—containing Chalice and Paten

G. Men and Boys will stand here (no chairs)

H. Women and Girls will stand here (no chairs)

J. Remaining Deacons’ positions (no chairs)

K. Extra Table — containing Stoles, Altar Cloth, and the Scroll, should be out of the way, but handy to the Assisting Deacon.

Transcribed by Richard J. Mammana in 2011 from 15 undated mimeographed pages with the citation “Berkeley Missionary Society.”

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The Scottish Liturgy, by A. E. Swinton (1955)

At the time of the Reformation in Scotland there was a confused state of affairs. The 1552 English Prayer Book was used at first, but supplanted in 1564 by Knox’s Book of Common Order. Charles I was naturally shocked by what he saw of worship in Scotland, and had the Prayer Book services properly rendered at Holyrood. He and Laud would have liked to have the same Prayer Book for England and Scotland. But it was thought best to have a book drawn up by Scottish Bishops and the work was entrusted chiefly. to Maxwell of Ross and Wedderburn of Dunblane. This book is commonly known as Laud’s Liturgy. In his spirited defence at his trial Laud denies authorship and puts all responsibility on the Scottish Bishops, although he admits approving corrections and gives his opinion that the Communion Office is superior to the English.

James VI had managed with some difficulty to get the Scottish Church to accept a valid Episcopacy and the Five Articles. He was anxious to have a new Prayer Book in place of Knox’s Common Order, but Archbishop Spottiswoode. urged him not to stir up opposition by any more innovations. However Spottiswoode and others drew up a Prayer Book for submission to the King, who licensed its printing, but James died, and it was not printed. Sprott (Scottish Liturgies of the Reign of James VI) printed this with an introduction in which he argues that this draft was presented to Charles I by Bp. Maxwell as representing what the Scots would accept. It is an unsatisfactory composition which would shock a liturgical scholar like Laud. Morning and Evening Prayer are modelled on the English Book, but have no responses: there is no Litany. The Communion Service would appall any liturgiologist. It has no Collect, Epistle, Gospel, Creed, Sursum Corda, Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis. The minister is directed to consecrate the elements by reciting the Words of Institution.

It says that Burial Services are not customary in Scotland, but allows that the minister “being requested ought not to refuse to make some comfortable exhortation.” So the draft was returned to the Bishops and the 1637 Prayer Book drawn up and imposed together with a code of Canons by Royal command. This high-handed procedure more than anything else proved its undoing. Some people who would have accepted the Prayer Book quite naturally objected to the way it was imposed. The result was the riot in St. Giles and the overthrow of Episcopacy by the fanatical Assembly of 1638. One very important cause of the trouble must be borne in mind. Charles I did much to recover the Church revenues for the Church, which John Knox himself confessed he could not do. The nobles who had grabbed them thought it was a good thing to create a diversion.


It is reprinted in Dowden’s Historical Account of the Scottish and American Communion Offices. We confine attention to “The Order of the Administration of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion.” The preliminary rubrics are much the same as the English ones except that “The holy Table having at the Communion time a Carpet, and a fair white linen cloth upon it, with other decent furniture, meet for the high mysteries there to be celebrated, shall stand at the uppermost part of the Chancel or Church.” The Office proceeds as the English except that the two Gospel responses are enjoined and the Presbyter is to say “So endeth the holy Gospel.” (“Presbyter” is substituted for “priest” as a concession to Scottish prejudice.) There are some differences in the Offertory Sentences including 1 Chron. xxix, 10, which precedes the Sursum Corda in the present Scottish Office. The Offertory rubric directs that the Presbyter “shall offer up and place the bread and wine prepared for the Sacrament upon the Lord’s Table.” This was the source of the similar injunction in 1662. In the prayer for the Church militant there is a sentence in brackets to be omitted “when there is no communion.” “And we commend especially unto thy merciful goodness the congregation which is here assembled in thy name to celebrate the commemoration of the most precious death and sacrifice of thy son and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” There is a commemoration of the faithful departed and the beautiful commemoration of saints which ends the prayer in the present Scottish Liturgy. Then follow the three long Exhortations. That for the negligent is printed first. It is intended to be read at the time of celebration and contains a passage directed against non-communicating attendance. The Comfortable Words (as is all Scripture quoted in the book) are from the A.V. The Sanctus is immediately followed by the Consecration Prayer. In this the Invocation comes before the Words of Institution. The Presbyter is ordered to take the paten but not to break the bread and to take the chalice and lay his hand on chalice or flagon. This is the source of the 1662 “manual acts.” After “of me” occurs the rubric “Immediately after shall be said this Memorial or Prayer of Oblation as followeth.” Then come the Oblation ending in the English Prayer of Oblation, Lord’s Prayer and Prayer of Humble Access. The rubric directs that the Bishop if present shall receive first. The words of administration end with “everlasting life” and the rubric directs “Here the party receiving shall say Amen.” After the Communion of the people the rubric directs that the elements are to be covered “with a fair linen cloth or corporal.” Then come the Prayer of Thanksgiving, Gloria, Blessing. The rubric after the Blessing makes modern clergy a little envious. It enjoins that one half of the collection “shall be to the use of the Presbyter to provide him books of holy Divinity.” The rubric concerning the bread has in brackets (though it be lawful to have Wafer Bread).


After 1638 all liturgical decency was swept away. When Episcopacy was restored in 1660 the memories of the riots of 1637 deterred the Bishops from any attempt at a liturgy. They tried to insist on a bare minimum of the use of the Lord’s Prayer, a metrical doxology to the Psalms and the reading of Scripture, which incredible as it may seem, the ministers who professed such a regard for it often omitted. The Prayer Book of 1662 was used in some families and apparently a few Churches. At least at Haddington there are some Bibles bound up with Prayer Books which used to be in the Town Council seats. Even after the Revolution when the Episcopal Church was free to do what it liked the force of custom and inertia caused the bad old ways to continue. What it was like about 1707 we gather from a MS. of Bishop Rattray in the Brechin Diocesan Library (Dowden op. cit. p. 48). Even the Communion was just like that of the Presbyterians. Often only a small quantity of wine was consecrated and if it fell short further supplies were drawn from a barrel without any consecration. Soon after this however many Prayer Books were sent from England and the English Prayer Book came into use. Some clergy would like to have used the 1637 book and some did, but the scarcity of books was an objection. Some of those who used the English book introduced the Invocation into the Consecration Prayer. Some read the Prayer of Oblation immediately after the Consecration, as Bishop Overall used to do. Rattray states that even before the Prayer Book was used it was customary to mix a little water with the wine before the service. In 1712 the Earl of Winton reprinted the Scottish Prayer Book of 1637 but it does not seem to have been widely used.

An important influence on the Scottish Church was that of the Non-jurors. Of course most Scottish Churchmen were Non-jurors; but the English Non-jurors were not persecuted they had friends among the established clergy and they were accustomed to a liturgy. In 1718 they drew up a liturgy of their own. Two Scottish Bishops were concerned in this, Campbell and Gadderar: the former lived mostly in England. A section of the Non-jurors including some of their best scholars versed in antiquity were anxious to restore certain “Usages” which the English rite had dropped. These were (1) Invocation of the Holy Spirit at the consecration, (2) Prayer of Oblation, (3) Commemoration of the faithful departed, (4) Mixed chalice. There was sharp controversy. over this both in England and Scotland. The Non-usagers were content with 1662 and some hoping for the restoration of the Stuarts wanted to wait for the King’s return before any alterations took place in the liturgy. At first the Non-usagers were in a majority but as the older generation died the learning of the Usagers won its way. They made clear that their practice was supported by the practice. of the Eastern Church and the writings of the Fathers. In Scotland the controversy was solved by the use of the Scottish Liturgy which contained two of the four usages and made the way easy for the other two to be introduced. Lack of space forbids me to describe the concordats arrived at between the parties. We pass on to what are known as the “wee bookies.” In 1724 Bishop Gadderar reprinted the part of the 1637 Communion Office from the Offertory to the Blessing but he provided also for the other two Usages. In 1731 the Bishops agreed to use only the English or Scottish Liturgies. However some of them felt free to alter the order of the service. I possess a 1712 reprint in which the order in which the parts are to be said is indicated by numbers written in the margin. The Dowden Library, Edinburgh, contains a “wee bookie” similarly treated. Some “wee bookies” arranged the prayers in the order in which they were used. In 1743 the Rev. R. Lyon of Perth wrote “The majority who use the Scottish Liturgy is so great that they are very few now who do otherwise, and those few in the Southern parts overaw’d by some ignorant laity.” A great influence making for the acceptance of the Scottish Liturgy was the scholarly Bishop Rattray, a student of Eastern liturgies. He was laird of Craighall in Perthshire, a convert from Presbyterianism, and was elected Bishop of Dunkeld in  1727. His book The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of Jerusalem was a most remarkable work. He drew up “An Office for the Sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist,” based on the Liturgy of St. James, which had great influence on the Scottish Office. In 1755 largely as the result of Rattray’s work Bishop Falconar issued an edition of the Scottish Office, practically the same as that which he and Bishop Robert Forbes produced in 1764, which was always regarded as the standard text. In this the Exhortation “Having now received—” appears for the first time. It is a modification of words said by the deacon in the Clementine Liturgy. This is probably due to Rattray, but the form is different from his. In 1811 the Synod of Aberdeen enacted that the Scottish Office was of primary authority but the English Office might be retained where it was in use. During the period of the Penal Laws chapels had been opened for English Churchmen with clergy in English Orders who had taken the oath of allegiance. They were known as Qualified Chapels. In them the English Prayer Book was of course used. After the repeal of the Penal Laws these gradually became united to the Scottish Church. Large numbers of English and Irish people came to Scotland and wanted the service to which they had been accustomed. Ignorant people accused the Scottish Office as being popish. The Scottish Church was seeking to put an end to the remaining Penal Laws, which would not allow clergy in Scottish Orders to hold an English benefice: so it came about that in 1853 the Scottish Liturgy was only used in 47 out of 126 Charges mostly in the North (Aberdeen 19 out of 23, St. Andrews 12 out of 21). Unfortunately to conciliate English prejudices Canons were passed in 1863, which did not merely put the English Office upon an equality with the Scottish but made it primary and enforced its use at Synods, Ordinations, etc. This gave colour to the common notion that we are “the English Kirk.”

In 1884 Bp. Dowden, then Principal of the Theological College, published his great work The Annotated Scottish Communion Office which roused the attention of liturgical scholars. It might have led to the revision of the “Invocation” on the lines of the American Office which was derived from the Scottish through Bishop Seabury. However when the idea was mooted, some Aberdonians took fright lest there should be an attempt to water down the doctrine of the Scottish Liturgy.

Nevertheless Bishop Dowden lived to see the fruits of his labours in the work of revision which gave us the edition of the Liturgy finally authorised in 1912. The rubrics of this authorised the mixed chalice and reservation for the sick, neither of which was formally authorised in 1764, although both were widely practised. A few alterations were made on the 1929 Prayer Book which enriched the Liturgy.

Canons were altered in 1911 and the use of the Scottish Office soon spread. To-day it is always used at the Consecration of Bishops, Synods, etc. It is interesting to recall the remark of a correspondent in the Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal about 1860, who said in effect. Let the Scottish Communion Office go: its end is inevitable. Indeed in accordance with the trend of events he had grounds for his statement. But that example can save us from abandoning other struggles in support of what we have grounds for believing to be right.

Moreover when we remember the vituperation which assailed the Liturgy of 1637 it seems incredible that a modern Presbyterian minister said this in 1949 “an examination of the Scottish Book of Common Prayer of 1637 taught men something of what a full celebration of the Lord’s Supper should be and drove them back behind the Prayer Book to a study of the early liturgies and subsequently the whole history of worship” (Maxwell, The Book of Common Prayer and the Worship of the non-Anglican Churches).

(The author is always glad of opportunities of speaking about the Scottish Church).

Offprint from The Anglican Catholic (1955), transcribed by Richard J. Mammana in 2022.

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H.M.S. Pinafore in Pennsylvania German

William H. Crane, promotional poster (gouache and graphite on paper, c. 1885).

H.M.S. Pinafore
oder Das Maedle and Ihr Sailor Kerl:
‘N translation fun dem bekannte Opera

Scene.—Deck of H.M.S. Pinafore. View of Portsmouth in the distance. Sailors led by Boatswain discovered cleaning brasswork, splicing rope, etc.

Opening Chorus

Mir fahren auf der meer,
Unser schiff iss shay und shteady;
M’r drinken nix oss beer,
Und m’r sinn aw immer ready
Wo’s fechterei iss sinn mir sphry,
Und mach’t der feind es fiehle;
Und wan’s ferbei iss, tzimlich glei
Gebt’s zeit genunk f’r shpiela.

Enter Little Buttercup with basket.


Buttercup—Hello! ihr shiffleit—kennen ‘r nimmie hara?
Sailors—Rushing towards her. Hello! glaene Buttercup.
Buttercup—waving them back. Nun, sagen mir: hen ihr betzawlsdawg kerzlich kotta?
Sailors—Airsht geshta.
Buttercup advancing Sell suit mich gude.
So kummen g’schwind dohaer,
Do kennen ‘r hendlich all euer geld fetzahra.

GESANG (Little Buttercup)

Sie haysen mich Buttercup—shay glaene Buttercup—
Und ich waiss gaw net warrum;
Doch bin ich die Buttercup—orum glay Buttercup,
Zu euer Buttercup kum.
Had duwok und shpella, und shayna korrella,
Und messer und watcha und sheer;
Und hingle und brilla, und zucker und pilla,
Das kennet ihr oll koffa fun mir.
Hab matches und taffy, bolognies und koffe,
Un naegel und frische pork chops,
Hab shnitz und kaduffla, und cigar und ruffla,
Und nummer ains peppermint drops.
Dann kofft fun euer Buttercup—shay glaene Buttercup,
Zu euer Buttercup kum.

Vell, little Buttercup, bisht du ols noch leddich? Du gukst yust so yung shmart und shay os wie olfort.

Yaw, aber kannst du mir sawga wass ess iss dos es hertz im kopf drawgt?

Well, nay, ich muss sawga ich hob noch net an so ebbes gedenkt.

Well—ich kann.

Sailors recoiling

Yaw—’N graut-kup.


Wass fehlt sella kerl? Iss er net g’sunt?

Du musht ‘n net minda, er is olfort so—Er iss bissel drei-eckich.

Well, ich set sheer denka. Aber wer kumt do?

Sell iss der Relf Reckstraw, der besht kerl uff ‘m shiff.

Relf!—that name!—remorse—remorse.

Enter Ralph.


The Nightingales’ Song (Ralph)

Ez tsipchia peift
Und der boppagoi greisht zurick
Der hawhna graeht
Und der blo-fogle fresst der mick—
Doch lieb ich sie.

Doch lieb ich sie.

Es maedchen weint,
Ihr lieben schatz kumt nicht mehr,
Der shonshtay shmokt,
Und der brunne iss sheer gaw lehr—

Doch lieb ich sie.

Recit. Ralph

Ich glaub wohl buwa os ihr’s recht,
Doch my undankbarkeit ‘r misst net ferdenka
Wann lieb und leida bol des herz verbrecht!
Ich lieb, yaw wohl, ich lieb der Cap sei tochd’r.

Er liebt—yaw wohl, er liebt der Cap sei tochd’r.

Er liebt—yaw wohl, etc.

A Maiden Fair to See (Ralph)

Sie iss’n maedle shay,
Demuethig, gude und glay,
Der shensht zu mei’m gewissa;
Und ich ‘n or’mer drup,
Mit net fiel in der kup,
Und gar ken gelt im kossa.

Er hut ken gelt im kossa

Doch habe ich’s uff mich genomma, kreftiglich
Die Liebe in mei herz zu plantza:
Weiss wohl es bot mich nix,
My lieb iss in ‘ra fix—
Ich kann ken horn pipe danza.

Er kann ken horn pipe danza.
Icnh bin net awrig g’scheit.
Mei larnung geht net weit.—
(Die Liebe war schumayshter)
Sie herschet mir in’s herz.
Mit sorga und mit schmerz,
Der Cap sei shayne tochd’r.

Ah! du or’mer drup, du groddelsht zu hoch; si hiaert dich net

Nay, des dut sie net.

Shem dich doch!

Deadeye, du bisht’n bopplemoul.

Relf, wos felt dew naws.

Enter Captain.

My gallant crew—good morning.

Guda morryea.

I hope you are all quite well.

All g’sunt—und du Cap?

I am in reasonable health and happy
To meet you all once more.

Unser ganze achtung.

SONG (Captain)

I am the captain of the Pinafore!

Und ‘n nummer ains Cap bisht du.

You’re very, very good,
And be it understood,
I command a right good crew.

Danke shoen, dabei.
Muss es gude fershtana sei
Oss er hut’n first rate crew.

Though related to a peer,
I can hand, reef and steer,
And ship a salvagee;
I am never known to quail
At the fury of a gale,
And I’m never, never sick at sea.

Was; gar net!

Nay; gar net.

Was; gar NET?

Well, sheer gar net.

He’s hardly ever sick at sea!
Then give three cheers, and one cheer more
For the hardy captain of the Pinafore!

I do my best to please you all—

Und mir sin mit dir content.

You’re exceedingly polite,
And I think it only right
To return the compliment.

Mir sin ivveraus polite
Und er meent es wer yust right,
Wen er uns aw compliment.

Bad language or abuse,
I never, never use,
Whatever the emergency;
Though “bother it,” I may
Occasionally say,
I never use a big, big D—

Was, gar net?


Was, gar net?

Well, sheer gar net.

Hardly ever swears a big big D—
Then give three cheers, and one cheer more
For the well bred captain of the Pinafore!

Exit all but Captain.

Captain (solus)
Es blogt mich der ganza dawg ‘n nagel im shoo. ‘Mol sehna ep ich ‘n net rous griega kann.

BALLAD (Josephine)

Thraenen und leid sin so der Liebe,
Schwer iss es herz oss hoft ohn hoffnung,
Krisslich die seiftzer shteigen auf,
Tief fum dem Herz der Lieb betruebef,
Tieff iss das elend und heftig die noth
Won Liebe erwecket und hoffnung iss tod.

Kald iss der tag won’s scheint ken sun,
Dunkel die nacht wo’s blickt ken mond;
Feicht iss die erd wen die wolke weinen,
Und shay die shtund die sterna scheinen.
Tief iss das elend, etc.

Tochd’r, wass iss letz? Du husht mir so awrig fun der Liebe g’sunga, es iss mir bang du denksht shun an die buwa.

Oh, wass sul ich sawga!

Now, ‘s iss net d’wart oss du in a hurry bisht dot d’wega. Ich will dir shun ‘n mon rous picka won’s tzeit kummt.

Dawdy, ich hab shun aner rous gepicked.

Der Dauzig!

Nay aber’n kommona sailor uf deim egena shiff.

Und mensht du wetsht ihn hiara?

Net bis er mich frawgt.

My gehorsames kind.

My guda dawdy.

They embrace.

BARCAROLE (invisible)

Ueber das grosse wasser
Kummt der Josef Borter, K.C.B.
Doch mawg er geh wohie er will,
Krachen die grosse flinte shtill.
Greish ueber das grosse wasser
For der Josef Borter, K.C.B.

During this the crew have entered on tiptoe, listening attentively to the song.

Do kumt der old Sir Jo,
Mit ‘n boat-load harlich weibsleid.
Nun laszt uns danzen so,
Und singen wie net recht g’scheit.
Mir fahren auf der say,
Unser shiff iss shay und shteady,
Mir trinken nix oss TAY
Und mir sin aw immer ready.

My child, I grieve to see that you are a prey to melancholy. You should look your best today, for Sir Joseph Porter, K.C.B. will be here this afternoon to claim your promised hand.

Enter Sir Joseph’s Female Relatives. They dance.

Gayly tripping, lightly skipping, flock the maidens to the shipping

Flieg der lumpa fum der fenshter
Laszt uns froehlich sei im ernster.

Sailors sprightly, always rightly, welcome ladies so politely.

Weibsleid oss so haerlich singen,
Werden lusht und freude bringen.

Enter Sir Joseph.

Do kumt der Jo; now geb drei cheers.

Hurray! hurray! hurray!

SONG (Sir Joseph)

(spoken) Ich hab so’n holve notion—das
Ich bin der kaynich fum der meer,
Das grosse shiff ich steer,
Die ganze welt iss mich bekannt.

Und mir sin sei shwester und sei cousins und sei aunts

Und mir sin, etc.

Sir Joseph
Ven at enker here I ride
My bozzum swells mit bpride;
Und I snep my fingers on der foeman’s taunts.

Und so could sel schweshter und sei cousins
Oss er tzahla kann bei dutzens, und sei aunts.

Sir Joseph
Die buwa guken tzimlich sowa d’moyra.

Salors (saluting)
Danke shoen.

Sir Joseph
Sie sin feina kerls.

Sailors (salute)
Unser ganze achtung.

Sir Joseph
Dusht sie gude treat?

Sailors (singing)
“M’r drinken nix oss tay.”

Sir Joseph
Was; gar net?

Sailors (emphatically)

Sir Joseph
You’ve a remarkably fine crew, Captain Corcoran.

Captain (suppressing them)
Sh-sh-h…! (leads Sir Joseph to front and whispers)—
Ols a’ mol.

Sir Joseph
So-o-o-o. Sawg seller kal sol mohl do raus kumma (pointing a general way to the sailors)

Captain (puzzled, imitates his motion and says)
Sawg, du, kum mol do rous; der Jo will mit dir schwetza.

Sailors (not knowing which one is meant, they all file up and surrounding Sir Joseph, salute)
Ich bin do.

Sir Joseph (furiously)

Sailors (retreat)
Ich bin zurick.

Sir Joseph
Ich hab sella kerl DAT gemehnt (pointing to Ralph)

Du grumnasicher; feesel die foula karper do funna.

Was husht g’sawt?

Wie mensht? Ich glaub ich fershtay dich net.

Wann ich so gude sei will.

Captain (angrily)
Was, du—

Sir Joseph (rebuking)
Tut-tut-tut. Er hut recht. Wann er so gude sei will.

Hum-m-m! Wann du so gude sei wit (Ralph comes forward)

Sir Joseph
For I hold dot on dem seas
Dot expression “off you blease”
A particularly gentlemanly tone implants.

Cousin Hebe
Und so thun sei schwester und sei cousins und sei aunts.

Sei schwester und sei cousins
Oss er tzahla kann bei dutzend,
Und sei aunts.

Sir Joseph
Captain, es war mir geshta g’sawt du hetsht so’n shaene tochd’r. Iss es waar?

Oh, hibsch, hibsch, sehr hibsch.

Sir Joseph
Gukt sie wie ihre Papaw?

Nay, gar net.

Sir Joseph (relieved)
Ah! dann kannsht du sie officially informa das ich sie sehne will im kabin und won sie mich suit du ich sie hiara naksht Sontag.

Exit Sir Joseph and Captain.


A British tar is a soaring soul
As free as a mountain bird;
His energetic fist
Should be ready to resist
A dictatorial word. (Etc.)

Exit all excepting Ralph.

Mei mind iss uff g’macht. Ich frag die Josephine der naksht mohl oss ich sie sehn. Ich bin yusht so gude oss anicha mann except der Jo—der Jo secht yo selvet im des shtick oss er uff g’macht hut, und s’iss aw die wahrheit. Ah! sie kumt!—Herz, mei herz, laszt no die ew’ge unruh (retires backstage as Josephine enters).

‘S iss gar net d’wart, ich kan der Joe net gleicha. Der Pap het’s of course awrig gern oss mir hiara det’n, und ich det sheer ainich ebbes f’r der Dawdy zu obliga aber DASS kann ich net; mei herz iss net mehr mein eigenes. ‘S iss yusht a nawme oss mich tsitter macht, und dass is—Ralph. (Ralph approaches tenderly and deferentially, and overcome at her confession, takes her hand and says:)

Josephine, ich liebe dich! (Josephine looks startled a moment, but recovers herself and sternly repulses him)

Duett (Josephine and Ralph)

Geh wek, du wieshta ding,
Du husht ken recht do;
Fergess net wer ich bin,
Und wem du schwetsht zu
Doch lieb ich ihn fum herz und darf es gar net sawga,
Mei leida und mei schmerz muss ich alanich drawga—
Es iss mir bang das alend macht mich mawga,
Sei gruma naws dut mich so awrig plawga.

Stolz lady, wie du’s husht—hard-herzig beauty.
Du sawgst, also ich muss—es iss mei duty;
Und du mei maedle bisht der Cap. sei tochd’r.
Doch, kennt sie mich yusht gleicha waer ich ganz zufrida.
Sie shput und lacht, doch muss ich sie mei lieb owbida—
Fum noth und elend det ich sie b’heeta,
Und wie en airlich mensch ich det sie treata.

Die naws, die naws iss grum.

Mei herz, mei herz iss grawt.

Ralph (recit.)
Can I survive this overbearing
Or live a life of mad despairing,
My proffered love despised, rejected?
No, no; it’s not to be expected!
(calling of)
Messmates, ahoy!
Come here! Come here!
(Enter sailors, Hebe and relatives)

Ya, mir sinn do,
Sinn do, sinn do.
Now sawg uns g’schwind
Was hut sie g’sawt?

Ralph (to cousin Hebe)
Es maedel secht sie wot mich net,
Sie kann mich gar net leida, lady;
Mei gruma naws gukt sie deruff,
Und shickt mich der Sals Rever nuff.

Oh, cruel one!

Sie will dich net, Oho! Oho!
Ich hab dir g’sawt es genkt dir so.

Mir shtanden’s net. ‘S iss yo’n shond.
Lieb kumt zugleich zu niedrig und stolz/
Mir sinn all sowa, sober sailor leid,
Und missen mir es shtanda? Nay!

Ihr missen’s shtanda, eb ihr wollen
Oder net, Oho! Oho!
‘N lady sie—ich hab yo g’sawt
Es genkt euch so.

Ralph (drawing a pistol)
Mein freund der Tod sei Hand mir rechet,
Fur oh! mei herz—mei herz verbrechet;
Won ich kabud bin, oh! sawgen sie
Wie ich g’liebet hat—nur sie
Wich ich g’liebet hat—nur sie

During chorus he has loaded pistol.

Nem warnung, kumraade all,
Und bleiben immer leddich,
Fur Josephine ich fall!

Puts pistol to his head. Chorus stop their ears. Josephine enters.

Sheese net—sheese net—ich lieb dich.

Sheese net—sheese net—sie liebt dich.

Ralph (incredulously)
Liebt mich?

Liebt dich.

Ya, ya, ya, ya, sie liebt dich.

Dick Deadeye
Er meent er het sei Josephine,
Doch sinn sie all erbarmlich green.
Es kummt ‘n donnerschlag
Und reist die Liebe all zu nix.
Der Captain hut ‘n wort zu sawga—
Sie missen airsht der Dawdy fraga
Und wann sie dun—ich sawg’s gewiss
Das ganz unewa liebe kumt ins ew’ge Finsternis.

Josephine, Hebe, Ralph (alternating)
This very night with bated breath and muffled oar
Without a light as still as death we steal ashore.
A clergyman shall make us one at half past ten,
And then we can return, for none can part us then!

Forbear, nor carry out the scheme you’ve planned.
She is a lady—you a foremast hand!
Remember, she’s your gallant captain’s daughter,
And you the meanest slave that crawls the water!

Back, vermin, back, nor mock us!
Back, vermin, back, you shock us!
Let’s give three cheers for the sailor’s bride
Who casts all thought of rank aside—
Who gives up home and fortune too
For the honest love of a sailor true!
For a British tar is a soaring soul
As free as a mountain bird;
His energetic fist should be ready to resist
A dictatorial word!
His foot should stamp and his throat should growl,
His hair should twirl and his face should scowl,
His eyes should flash and his breast protrude,
And this should be his customary attitude.



Scene. Deck of H.M.S. Pinafore. Night. Captain discovered singing and accompanying himself on a mandolin. Little Buttercup seated on quarter deck, gazing sentimentally at him.

SONG (Captain)

Zu du, du gude mond
Will ich en solo singa.—
Ich glaub ich geh nous Vest,
Zu de Incha and onra sotta dinga.

Ah! Little Buttercup, still on board? That is not quite right, little one. It would have been more respectable to have gone on shore at dusk.

True, dear Captain—but the recollection of your sad, pale face seemed to chain me to the ship. I would fain see you smile before I go.

DUET (Little Buttercup and Captain)

Mein freund,
Sache sinn net alfort grawt wie sie guken,
Dick millich gukt wie rohm aber es iss net;
Und shay g’blackda shtuywel gucken wie patent-leather, aber sie sinn aw net:
Und ‘n micke-ware kann pohawna federa drawga.

Captain (puzzled)
Very true, so they do.

All trup shoaf huts schwatza dabei,
Alles was glaenzed iss net brass,
Der shoensht kerl im class kann shmaert oss’n bluck sei,
Und ‘s iss net alford de grest grut oss es weidsht jumpa kann.

Ich glaub es wohl alle mohl.
Ich denk dahinter steht was shrecklich,
Ueberaus, und ganz unglicklich
—’S iss nich waar.

Es iss waar.

Ich hais mich net so ueberaus g’scheit,
Aber so kennt ich shwetza fum now bis naksht Grischdawg;
Es war mohl ‘n katz hut die gichdera kotta.
Wo’s feier hut, hut’s aw shmoke.

Frequentlee I agree.

M’r kann oft guka was m’r net gern sawga det.
Es liderlich kind set’s briggle shpeera,
‘N tayleffle molossich iss besser oss gar ken zuker im koffe.
Der geitzich hund shloaft ols noch im geilsdroag.

Ich glaub es wohl alle mohl.

Paw of cat the chestnut snatches,
Worn out garments show new patches,
Only count the chick that hatches;
Men are grown up catchy catches.

Yes, I know that is so
Aside Though to catch my drift he’s striving,
I’ll dissemble—I’ll dissemble;
When he sees at what I’m driving
Let him tremble—let him tremble.

Ich denk dahinter shteht was schrecklich,
Ueberaus und ganz unglicklich;
Doch ich glaub sie schnitzled hesslich,
Es iss waar, ganz und gar.
Doch ich glaub sie schnitzled hesslich,
Was sie sawgt iss ungewisslich;
Ihr gedanken sinn unmesslich,
Ess iss waar.

‘S iss nicht waar.

Exit Little Buttercup melodramatically.

Incomprehensible as her utterances are, I nevertheless feel that they are dictated by sincere regard for me. But to what new misery is she referring? Time alone can tell!

Enter Sir Joseph

Sir Joseph
Captain Korkoran, I was very much disappointed mit your daughter. I don’t dink she vil do.

She won’t do, Sir Joseph?

Sir Joseph
Dot vos it. Der fact vos, dot although I have urge my suit mit as much eloquence as vos inconsistent for an official utterance, I don’t vos successful. How you make dot oud?

Really, Sir Joseph, I hardly know. Josephine is of course sensible of your condescension.

Sir Joseph
Yaw, dot vos drue.

But perhaps your exalted rank dazzles her.

Sir Joseph
You dink it vould?

I can hardly say; but she is a modest girl; and her social position is far below your own. It may be that she feels she is not worthy of you.

Sir Joseph
Dot vos really a very sensible suggestion of human nature as I had given you credit fo.

See, she comes. If your lordship would kindly reason with her, and assure her officially that it is a standing rule at the Admiralty that love levels all ranks, her respect for an official utterance might influence her to look upon your offer in its proper light.

Sir Joseph
Dot vos not unlikely. I vill took your suggestion. But hush! I hear feetsteps!

The hours creep on apace,
My guilty heart is quaking!
Oh, that I might retrace
The step that I am taking.
It’s folly it were easy to be showing,
What I am giving up and whither going.
A simple sailor, lowly born,
Unlettered and unknown,
Who toils for bread from early morn
Till half the night has flown!

Sir Joseph (coming down)
Josephine, it has been represented to me dot you vas oxcited by my exalted rank. I vould like to told you officially dot off your hesitation vos attributed to dat circumstance it vos uncalled for.

Oh! then your lordship is of opinion that married happiness is NOT inconsistent with discrepancy in rank.

Sir Joseph
I vos offically mit dot opinion.

That the high and lowly may be truly happy together, provided that they truly love one another?

Sir Joseph
Josephine, I vould like to told you OFFICIALLY—dot vos it.

I thank you, Sir Joseph. I DID hesitate, but I will hesitate no longer. (Aside) He little thinks how eloquently he has pleaded his rival’s cause. (Captain has entered, during this speech he comes down.)

TRIO (First Lord, Captain and Josephine)

Never mind the why and wherefore.
Love can level ranks and therefore
I admit its jurisdiction!
Ably have you played your part,
You have carried firm conviction
To my hesitating heart.

Laszt die glocken jubeltoenen, Reisst die luft mit lust gesang, etc.

Sir Joseph
Frag uns net f’r explanation,
Sei zufrida wann mir sawgen
Dass es kann ken dif’rence mache
Eb du gelt husht oder net,
Es kennt mich net besser pleasa
Wann der Dawdy millyona het.

Sir Joseph, I cannot express to you my delight at the happy result of your eloquence. Your argument was unanswerable.

Sir Joseph
Captain Korkoran, dot vos one of ther habbiest karackteristics of dis happy guntry, dot official utterances could invariably be regarded as unanswerable.

At last my fond hopes are to be crowned. My only daughter is to be the bride of a cabinet minister. (During this speech Dick Deadeye has entered.)

Dick (Mysteriously)
I’m come to give you warning.

Indeed Do you propose to leave the navy then?

No, no; you misunderstand me; listen!
Gude Cap, ich det dir gern mohl eppes sawga,
Singt hey tra la, gude Captain oss du bisht;
Doch ‘s iss mir bang es wird dir wenning plaga.
Singt hey tra la, gude Captain oss du bisht.
Tra la mei guda Captain.—

Tra la, du narrish sailor.

Gude Cap. dei glaene tochd’r hut ‘n plawn gesetzt,
Tra la, mei guda Captain oss du bisht.
Auf diese nacht mit Ralf zu heiarawden yetzt,
Tra la, mei guda Captain oss du bisht—
Tra la, mei guda Captain.—

Dick Deadeye, I thank you for your warning. I will at once take means to arrest their flight. This boat cloak will afford me ample disguise. So! (Envelopes himself in a mysterious cloak, holding it before his face.)

Aha! Sie sinn g’fixed! sie sinn g’fixed! (Enter crew on tiptoe, with Ralph and Boatswain, meeting Josephine, who enters from cabin on tiptoe with bundle of necessaries, and accompanied by Little Buttercup. The captain, shrouded in his boat cloak, takes the stage unnoticed.)

(Captain stamps.)

All (much alarmed)
Was der dausig war dann dass?

Sei’n doch shtill, es war die katz!
Pull ashore, in fashion steady,
Hymen will defray the fare,
For a clergyman is ready
To unite the happy pair.

(Stamps as before)

Was der dausig—war shon wider dass?

Se’in doch shtill, es war die katz!

Shon wieder war’s die katz!

Sie hen recht—es war die katz.

(throwing off cloak)
Shoen tochd’r fun mei’m,
Sei so gude mir zu sawga,
Wohie oss du geh wit
Mit die salors vun mei’m.
Sinn first rate-a kerls und kennten
Anich ebba dresha.
Doch sinn sie net gude company
Mei lady, fur dich.

Proud officer, that haughty lip uncurl!
Vain main, suppress that supercilious sneer.
For I have dared to love your matchless girl—
A fact well known to all my messmates here!

Oh, horror!

Ralph and Joseph
I (he) humble, poor and lowly born.
The meanest in the port division—
The butt of epauletted scorn—
The mark of quarter-deck derision—
Have (has) dared to raise my (his) wormy eyes
Above the dust to which you’d mould me (him),
In manhood’s glorious pride to rise.
I am (he is) an Englishman.

Guk’n mohl aw!
Er iss ‘n Englisher.

Oss er iss ‘n Englisher,
Und er hut’s yo selvet g’sawt

Oss er iss ‘n Englisher.

Captain (trying to repress his anger)
In uttering a reprobation
To any British tar,
I try to speak with moderation,
But you have gone too far.
I am sorry to disparage
A humble foremast lad,
But to seek your captain’s child in marriage,
Fadultzei, ‘s iss zu awrig.

All (shocked)

Yaw, fadultzei, ‘s iss zu awrig. (During this Sir Joseph has appeared on deck. He is horrified at the bad language.)

Sir Joseph
My pain und my distress
I found it was not easy to express
May amazement, my surprise
You may found out by looking on my eyes.

My lord, one word: the facts are not yet before you:
The word was injudicious, I avow!
But hear my explanation, I implore you,
And you will be indignant, I avow!

Sir Joseph
I vill hear of no defence.
Attempt none, vos you sensible.
Dot vord of evil sense
Vos wholly indefensible.
Go, ribald, got you hence
To your kaeben mit celerity.
Dis vos der gaonsequence
Of ill-advised asperity!

(Exit Captain, disgraced, followed by Josephine.)

Sir Joseph
Now, you told me how it vos dot your Captain swear at you. It vasn’t your fault, vos it?

Please, your honor, it was thus wise. You see I was only a topman—a mere foremast hand—

Sir Joseph
Don’t be ashamed of dot. Your position as topman vos a very oxalted one.

Well, your honor, love burns as brightly in the foksle as it does on the quarter deck, and Josephine is the fairest bud that ever blossomed upon the tree of a poor fellow’s wildest hopes.

Enter Josephine; she rushes to Ralph’s arms. Sir Joseph is horrified.


Sir Joseph
Insolent sailor, you shall repent dis outrage. Seize him!

The marine seizes him and handcuffs him.

Oh, Sir Joseph, spare him, for I love him tenderly.

Sir Joseph
Got oud!—I teach dot presumptuous marine to discipline his affections. Haf you got such a ding as a penitentiary on board?

Amnes (lugubriously)

Sir Joseph
So-o-o! Vell, you tie a chain on him and take him righd avay pooty qwick oud.

At the end Ralph is led off in custody.

Sir Joseph
My pain and my distress I found itw as not easy to oxpress. My amazement, my surprise, you may found out by looking on my eyes. Josephine, I would like to told you officially dot I vos hurt. You! a daughter of a Captain in der Royal Navy—

Buttercup advancing
Hullup! Ich hab eppes zu sell zu sawga.


Yaw, ich! Ralph, kumm haer. (Ralph comes forward and kneels on her left.)
Captain, do rous mit dir. (Captain comes from Cabin and kneels at her right.)
o, mach die awga zu. (Joseph obediently shuts his eyes. Marine brings tray to Buttercup and transformation begins.)


Bout fertzich yahr zurick—
Un ‘s iss aw net geluga—
Wie ich noch yung und shay war,
Hab bavies uff getzuga.

Now this is most alarming,
When she was young and charming,
She practiced baby farming
A many years ago.

Zwee war’n mir mohl gebracht,
Der ain’d war wiesht und orrum:
Der onner reich und shmart—
‘N rechter hoch geborner.

All (explaining to each other)
Now this is the position:
One was of low condition,
The other a patrician,
A many years ago.

O, schwer iss meiner kreuz,
Wie hab ich’s dann du kenner?
Ich hab sie uff gemixt—
Die orrum glaener kinner.

How could you do it?
Some day, no doubt, you’ll rue it.
Although no creature knew it
So many years ago.

Dann kumt amohl ‘n zeit,
Die bavies mich verlossen.
Der wieshter war der Cap,
Der onner Ralph ihr cousin.

They left their foster mother,
The one was Ralph our brother,
Our captain was the other
A many years ago.

Transformation takes place during this song, and at the end Ralph rises as Captain, and Captain as Ralph.

Sir Joseph
Hm-m-m! Now dot vos a very singular circumstance (pointing to Captain). Sawg sella Kerl set mohl do do’rous kum.

Ralph (as Captain)
Sawg, du grumnaisicher; feesel dei foula karper do funna.

Was husht g’sawt?

Wie mensht? Ich glaub ich versteh dich net.

Wann ich so gude sei will.

Sir Joseph
Er hut recht! “Wann er so gude sei will.”

Why certainly. Wann du so gude sei wid. (Captain steps forward.)

Sir Joseph to Captain
Du bisht ‘n first rate-a kerl, gella?

Falluss dich druf.

Sir Joseph
So it seems dot you vos Ralph and Ralph vos you.

So it seems, your honor.

Sir Joseph
Vell, I need not told you dot on top of dis I don’t marry Josephine.

Don’t say dot, your honor; love levels all ranks.

Sir Joseph
Yes, he do pooty much, but he don’t lefel ‘m gvite so much as all dot. (Hands Josephine over to Ralph and calls Hebe to himself.)


Oh joy, oh rapture unforeseen
The clouded sky is now serene!
The god of day, the orb of love,
Has hung his ensign high above,
The sky is all ablaze
With wooing words and loving song
We’ll chase the lagging hours along.
And if he finds the maiden coy,
We’ll murmur forth decorous joy
In dreamy roundelay.

I shall marry with a wife
In my humble rank of life!
(Turning to Buttercup)
And you, my own, are she—
I must wander to and fro,
But wherever I may go,
I shall never be untrue to thee!

Was, gar net?

Nay, gar net.


Well, ols amohl.

Hardly ever be untrue to thee! Then give three cheers and one cheer more for the faithful seaman for the “Pinafore.”

Doch gleicht er sei Buttercup, orrum glay Buttercup,
Und ich waiss gar net warrum;
Doch gleicht er sei Buttercup, shay glaene Buttercup,
Zu dei glay Buttercup kim.

Doch gleicht er sei Buttercup, orrum glay Buttercup,
Und mir wissen gar net warrum.
Doch gleicht er sei Buttercup, orrum glay Buttercup,
Iss er now net hesslich dum!

Sir Joseph
Ich bin der kaynich fun der meer,
Und ven ich hiar dir (to Hebe)
I vos true mit dot devoton vot my lofe implants.

Then good-bye to his sisters and his cousins and his aunts!
Especially his cousins,
Who he reckons up by dozens,
His sisters and his cousins and his aunts!

Ols er iss ‘n Englisher,
Und er hut’s yo selvet g’sawt.
Yaw, er hut’s yo selvet g’sawt,
Ols er iss ‘n Englisher.


This Pennsylvania German version of Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S. Pinafore; or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor was serialized in The Morning Call (Allentown) newspaper on May 16, May 23, and May 1959.

The Pennsylvania German translation of Pinafore was first published in Allentown in 1882 as H.M.S. Pinafore, oder Das Mædle und ihr Sailor Kerl: ‘n Translation fun dem bekannte Opera. That text was presented in parallel Pennsylvania German and the original English libretto, and translated by Alfred C. Moss and Ellwood Newhard. It was revived in 1901 in Allentown, Altoona, Bethlehem, Easton, Lancaster, Lebanon, Reading, Scranton, and other Pennsylvania towns to great regional acclaim. A second revival focused in eastern Pennsylvania took place in 1910 and was still recalled by scholars and residents of Northampton County and Lehigh County in the 1960s.

The Pennsylvania German text digitized here was edited and corrected by Preston Albert Barba (1883-1971) in 1959 and published in his ‘S Pennsyvaanisch Deitsch Eck (The Pennsylvania German Corner) column with notes and commentary. A third text was prepared in the 1970s or 1980s in typescript for an unknown purpose by the Rev. Dr. Richard Druckenbrod, a German Reformed United Church of Christ pastor and president of the Pennsylvania German Society.

Dr. Barba notes: “The Pennsylvania German version is not in the best Lehigh Countian Pennsylvania German and contains many errors, but it was meant to be burlesque. Joined with the light music of Sullivan and Woody Newhard’s dialect ad libs it proved a roaring success.”

This text was transcribed by Richard Mammana in 2022 for purposes of free use non-commercial language study with no further assertion of copyright.

November 1977 article from The Morning Call.

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Filed under Bibliography, Pennsylvania German, Personal

Morgets und Owets, by Emanuel Rondthaler (1849)

The following elegiac idyl, in Pennsylvania German, is the creation of the late Rev. Emanuel Rondthaler, tutor in the Hall between 1832 and 1839; and we believe one of the first attempts to render that mongrel dialect the vehicle of poetic thought and diction. It is admitted into this repository for a consideration else than its literary merit; the language in which its sentiments are conveyed being that of the neighborhood of Nazareth in part, with whose population students at the Hall in all times were brought into frequent contact. Mr. Rondthaler’s lyric is worded in the vernacular of these once so called “Bushwhackers,” between whom and the “Hallers” petty warfare has been waged from time immemorial. Of the origin of the long-cherished difference, history and tradition are silent. Perhaps it was a war of races, accountable only on the assumption of an instinctive antagonism. Perhaps the contest was provoked, for although the “Bushwhackers” were stigmatized as a semi-ferine race, they were a harmless, hard-working people, who gave generously of their orchards and rural stores until the “Hallers” aggravated them beyond endurance by persistent depredations on their choice apples and reserved chestnuts.
The touching appeal which the little poem makes to the finer feelings of our nature, through the medium of external objects most familiar and suggestive to the rustic, loses none of its power, although conveyed in the rude language of his every-day life; while the spirit of Christian faith and hope with which it is imbued reminds us forcibly of what we are apt to forget—that the diviner impulses of our spiritual being are shared alike by all classes of the human family.


MORGETS scheint die Sunn so schö,
Owets geht der gehl Mond uf,
Morgetsleit der Dau im Glä,
Owets drett mer drucke druf.

Morgets singe all die Feggle,
Owets greyscht der Lawb-krott arg,
Morgets gloppt mer mit der Fleggle,
Owets leit mer sho im Sarg.

Alles dut sich ennere do,
Ņix bleibt immer so wie nau;
Wos’ em Fräd macht, bleibt nett so,
Werd gar arg bald harrt un rau—

Drowe werd es anners sein,
Dart wo nau so blo aussickt;
Dart is Morgets alles fein,
Dart is Owets alles Lickt.

Morgets is dart Fräd die Fill,
Owets is eso noch so;
Morgets is ems Herz so still;
Owets is mer o noch fro.

Ach! wie dut mer doch gelischte,
Nach der blo’e Woning dart ;
Dart mit alle gute Ghrishte
Fräd zu have—Roo als fort.

Wann sie mich ins Grab nei drage,
Greint nett—denn ich habs so schö,
Wann sie—“Ess is Owet!”-sage
Denkt—bei ihm is sell, “all one.”


In the morning the sun shines cheerful and bright,
In the evening the yellow moon’s splendor is shed ;
In the morning the clover’s with dew all bedight,
In the evening its blossoms are dry to the tread.

In the morning the birds sing in unison sweet,
In the evening the frog cries prophetic and loud;
In the morning we toil to the flail’s dull beat,
In the evening we lie in our coffin and shroud.

Here on earth there is nothing exempt from rude change—
Nought abiding, continuing always the same;
What pleases is passing.—is past! oh how strange!
And the joy that so mocked us is followed by pain.

But above ’twill be different, I very well know—
Up yonder, where all is so calm and so blue!
In the morning there objects will be all a glow—
In the evening aglow, too, with heaven’s own hue.

In the morning up yonder our cup will be filled,
In the evening its draught will not yet have been drain’d;
In the morning our hearts will divinely be stilled,
In the evening, ecstatic with bliss here unnamed.

And oh how I long, how I yearn to be there,
Up yonder, where all is so calm and so blue!
With the spirits of perfected just ones to share
Through eternity’s ages joy and peace ever new .

And when to my grave I shall slowly be borne,
Oh weep and lament not, for I am so blest!
And when “it is evening” you’ll say—or, “’tis morn”—
Remember, for me there is nothing but rest

—William Cornelius Reichel, Historical Sketch of Nazareth Hall from 1755 to 1869: With an Account of the Reunions of Former Pupils and of the Inauguration of a Monument at Nazareth on the 11th of June, 1868, Erected in Memory of Alumni Who Fell in the Late Rebellion (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1869)

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Preface to “The Original Services for the State Holidays,” by A. P. Perceval (1838)

The circumstance of the fifth of November in last year (1837) falling upon a Sunday, brought to light a remarkable difference of opinion and practice existing among the Clergy, in regard to the proper service to be used upon that day; which has since been the subject of lengthened discussion in two Ecclesiastical Periodicals, the British Magazine and the Church of England Gazette, involving, as it obviously does, questions of considerable importance; as, for instance, the authority of Convocation, and the extent of the royal prerogative, in regulating Divine Offices. There appear to have been no less than three distinct varieties of opinion upon the subject, producing corresponding difference of conduct. 1. There were some who held the authority of the Book of Common Prayer to be so paramount and exclusive as to oblige them to use only the ordinary service prescribed by it. 2. There were others who considered the particular service as printed now at the end of the Prayer Book to have “every possible authority,” and therefore felt themselves bound to use it. 3. Others, again, considered the particular service now existing to be destitute of due authority, but readily conceded that authority to the particular service of 1662, and accordingly used such parts of that service as were left untouched in the subsequent alterations of it.

With the first the authority of the Civil Legislature, viz. of the Parliament and the Crown; with the second the authority of the Crown alone; with the last the authority of the Ecclesiastical Legislature, i.e. of the Convocations and the Crown, seemed most to be regarded in the celebration of Divine Offices. But, probably, the circumstances connected with the day set people upon the alert to scrutinize the authority of the special services appointed to be used on it with a strictness which they would hardly otherwise have thought it necessary to use. To a considerable portion of the Queen’s subjects, those who adhere to the Church of Rome, the observation of the day is on every account galling and offensive. The original purpose for which it was set apart, namely, that of celebrating the discovery and defeat of the Gunpowder Plot, serves to keep alive in men’s minds a transaction so foul and disgraceful on the part of some members of their Church, as can hardly fail to implicate, in some degree, the community to which they belonged, and in the behalf of which it was undertaken. But the additional parts of the service, in commemoration of the triumphs of William the Third, must sound to the Irish adherents of Rome as a thanksgiving for their especial overthrow, as offensive as “Boyne Water.” To another, not very numerous, but highly respectable body, the Episcopalians of Scotland, those additional parts of the service appear like thanksgivings for the overthrow of their Church, which fell under the civil power of William the Third, when their Bishops refused to transfer to a foreigner the allegiance they were under oath to pay to their native King, and to his heirs. Those, again, in England who revere the memory of the seven Bishops, (five of whom were confessors for the truth under both reigns, committed to the Tower by the Papal King for not betraying their Church, and deprived of their bishopricks by the Presbyterian for not betraying their Sovereign,) and who think that foreign invasion, and royal parricide, to name no other marks by which the æra of 1688 may be noted, call rather for national humiliation than national thanksgiving, are naturally disinclined to the additions to the service which seem to involve all who use them in an approval of the questionable courses which were then taken in hand. [The seven Bishops committed to the Tower by James II. were Sancroft, Canterbury; Ken, Bath and Wells; Turner, Ely; Lake, Chichester; Lloyd, St. Asaph; White, Peterborough; and Trelawny, Bristol. Of these all, save Trelawny and Lloyd, were deprived by William III., and, in addition to these, Lloyd of Norwich, and Frampton of Gloucester.] But whatever might be the grounds of the differences of opinion, those differences, as above stated, both existed and were acted upon. It is very possible that documents relating to this subject may be in existence which may oblige us to qualify or alter the views which these here collected are calculated to convey. But since “de non existentibus et de non apparentibus eadem est ratio,” I hope I shall not be deemed worthy of blame, if, after a fruitless search after others, I make the best use I can of these here presented to the reader. If others should hereafter be produced, I shall hold myself as free to alter my view according to them, as I do now to maintain the conclusion I have drawn from these.

In order to understand the subject, some distinctions must be attended to, which in many instances have been overlooked. 1. First it must be noted that the “particular services” do not, and never did, form part of “the Book of Common Prayer.” II. The observance of the three days, (8th November, 30th January, 20th May.) and the services appointed for them, must be distinguished from the observance of the day of the Sovereign’s Accession, and the service provided for it; for these rest on different authorities. III. The observance of the three days must be distinguished from the use of the services appointed for them; for these also rest on different authorities. IV. The old “particular services,” provided in 1662, must be distinguished from those now appended to the Prayer Book; for these again rest on different authorities. First, The “particular services” do not, and never did, form part of “the Book of Common Prayer.” The Book of Common Prayer was completed in 1661, by the Convocation, with the King’s authority, thus obtaining the force of Ecclesiastical law; and was in the same year ratified and confirmed by the Parliament and the Crown, thus receiving the force of statute law also. The particular services for the three days, were provided by Convocation with the Crown in 1662, and thus have the force of ecclesiastical law; but these were never submitted to Parliament. They were published, and ordered to be annexed to the Common Prayer, by Royal Proclamation.

II. It appears that for the Sovereign’s Accession there is no Act of Parliament, even indirectly recognizing any particular service, nor any Act of Parliament enjoining the observance of any day in any manner. There is a Canon of Convocation, 1640, expressly enjoining the observance of the day, and recognising, as of authority, a particular form of service then in existence, which the reader will find below. But there is also an Act of Charles II., 1661, (13 Car. II. c. 12,) forbidding the enforcement of any Canon passed in 1640: hence those Canons cannot (according to the Act of Submission) be regarded as forming any part of our Ecclesiastical law. So that for the observance of the day of the Sovereign’s Accession, and for the use of the particular service (which, moreover, is not the same as that of 1640), usually bound up with our Prayer Books, there is no law whatever, neither civil nor ecclesiastical. The observance of the day and the use of the service rest only on a Royal Proclamation; and if a clergyman were to be indicted in the Court of King’s Bench, or in the Ecclesiastical Courts, for using the special service on that day, authorized by Royal Proclamation, in lieu of the ordinary service, enjoined by the Act of Uniformity, and to which he is bound by his subscription to the second article in the thirty-sixth Canon, it may admit of a doubt what the decision of the Courts would be. In respect, then, of the day of the Sovereign’s Accession, and of the service provided for it, it would seem that they who hold the exclusive authority of the Common Prayer Book, can make out a fair case to vindicate themselves from using the particular service. But, as was before observed, the case of the three other days and their services is somewhat different; different, and (as it should seem) better authority being to be adduced in their behalf. III. Let us distinguish between the days and the servicesappointed for them. For the celebration and observance of the days, that is to say, of the 5th of November, of the 30th of January, and of the 29th of May, there are, in the first place, three several Acts of Parliament, which will be found below; 3 Jac. I. c. 1; 12 Car. II. c. 30; and 12 Car. II. c. 14. But none of these Acts speak of any particular service being provided; all that they enjoin is, that people shall go to Church on those days; that the souk of January shall be observed with fasting and that, on the two other days, the Minister shall give public thanks, but they leave the form of his so doing to his own discretion; and the injunctions of the Acts would be fully complied with by his mere insertion of a clause in the general thanksgiving.

There is however another Act, 24 Geo. II. c. 28, confirming the celebration of the days, and giving a sanction, at least indirect, to certain particular services provided for them. This Act is that establishing the alteration of style, and ordering the alteration of the times of observing the festivals accordingly, and for this purpose a new calendar was appended to it, and received, together with it, the force of an Act of Parliament. In this calendar these three days are mentioned as “certain days for which particular services are appointed.” So that the question, as concerns those who have urged the exclusive authority of the Common Prayer, in vindication of their total omission of the particular service on the 5th of November, turns upon this, namely, whether the indirect sanction to the particular services afforded by this Act would avail to warrant them in departing from the Act of Uniformity, by using them. It should seem, that in the Court of King’s Bench it probably would be held permissive, and that therefore the Clergy are at liberty, as far as the Act of Parliament is concerned, to use the particular service, should they think fit. That they are also at liberty, as regards Ecclesiastical law, is still more easily demonstrable; as it was the Ecclesiastical Legislature which provided a special service, and the article in the 36th Canon, by which every clergyman binds himself to use the Book of Common Prayer, and none other, must be regarded as an acknowledgment of the authority of Convocation in respect to the Liturgy, and, therefore, as virtually binding men to observe all alterations put forth by the same authority, where not contrary to the law of the land, but none other. Hence it should seem, that if the obstacle which the letter of the Act of Uniformity presents, may be considered removed by the statute of 24 Geo. II. indirectly sanctioning the special services for the three days, the Clergy would be under obligation, by the Rules of their Church, to make use of the special services.

IV. The “particular services” of 1662 are to be distinguished from the particular services now appended to the Common Prayer. The reader will see below that they are, different, and the authority is likewise different which can be adduced in respect of them. The particular services of 1662 were prepared and passed by Convocation with the authority and ratification of the Crown, and therefore, unless there be any law of the land opposed to them, the rubrics enjoining them are as much and as truly Ecclesiastical law, as any which has ever been so considered. In respect to the service for the 5th of November, it has been supposed by some that the service, as it now stands, was revised in Convocation in 1689. But from the detailed account given by Wilkins, in his Concilia, iv. 619-621, of the proceedings of that Convocation, de die in diem, in which no mention whatever is made of such a transaction, it does not appear that such was the case. It should seem, rather, that William III. so far trode in his predecessor’s footsteps as to dispense with the laws in this instance; and to set up a Royal Proclamation against and above an Act of the Ecclesiastical Legislature. The first question, then, between the advocates of the service of 1063, and the advocates of the present services (who both argue on the supposition that there is no hindrance on account of the Act of

Uniformity) is this:—Has the Crown the power, by itself, to set aside what has been agreed to by Convocation and Crown together? If it has, then the existing services, if not, then the services of 1662, have the prior claim upon our observance. Is then the Crown absolute in the Church? I can only say I know no ground upon which such an assertion can be maintained. The Clergy acknowledge the Crown to be supreme as well in all Ecclesiastical matters and causes as temporal (Canon 36); which seems to mean equally supreme, not more so: and therefore as it is certain that the Crown is not absolute in temporal causes, so it seems necessarily to follow, that neither is it absolute in Ecclesiastical: and accordingly, though we find many and repeated decisions of what are called the Superior Courts affirming the power of Convocation and the Crown to make Ecclesiastical law, I have met with none, and have in vain asked those who differ in opinion with me to produce any, affirming the power of the Crown alone to make Ecclesiastical law. But if the Crown has no power to make Ecclesiastical law, then it follows that the rubrics enjoining the use of the existing services for the 5th of November, 30th of January, and 29th of May, have not the force of law, nor can be enforced in any Court, Temporal or Ecclesiastical. While on the other hand, if Convocation and the Crown have power to make Ecclesiastical law, then it follows that the rubrics enjoining the use of the old services, which, together with the services, were passed by Convocation and ratified by the Crown, have the force of Ecclesiastical law, being unrepealed, and may be enforced in the Ecclesiastical Courts, with aid, if need be, from the Temporal Courts also.

But this is not the only question between the advocates of the old special services and the advocates of the new. The last confidently appealed to the statute of George the Second, of which mention has been made above, and affirmed that by it the new services received the force of an Act of Parliament. 

But since it appears that there is no allusion whatever to the services in the body of the Act, and that in the Calendar appended to and confirmed by the Act, the only mention is of “Certain days for which particular services are appointed,” it should seem, as was before observed, that the utmost effect of the Act, in regard to the services, is permissive; that is to say, it probably would avail to screen a Clergyman using them from any penalty arising from the Act of Uniformity, with which, for these days, it may be deemed to dispense; but can hardly be construed compulsorily, so that a Clergyman who failed to use the services could be indicted under it. But, certainly, permissive sanction seems to be given by this Act to certain special services; and the question is, to which set of special services the permission applies; whether to those of 1662, or to those which are appended now to the Prayer Books, as altered by James the Second, and William the Third? As these alterations were in existence before the passing of this Act, we might not unreasonably imagine, if we decided without looking at the Act, that whatever sanction it afforded would be in favour of the altered services. But when we come to examine it, we find reason to alter that opinion. In the first place, it is worthy of observation, that neither the body of the Act, nor the Calendar, take any notice whatever of any day to be observed in celebration of the Sovereign’s Accession, nor of any particular service appointed for it, though a particular service for that purpose was in existence and in use at the time; and enjoined by all the authority that a Royal Proclamation can convey. In the next place, the body of the Act only speaks of those days already enjoined by Act of Parliament; which are the same for which services had been provided by Convocation in 1662. In like manner the Calendar at the end of the Act (the same Calendar, with the exception of the alteration as to style, as provided by Convocation in 1661-2, which now, for the first time, was confirmed by Civil Statute), speaks only of those “Certain days for which particular services had been appointed” by Convocation. If we further observe how the days are described, we shall be struck with the same impression: they are spoken of as days “kept in memory” of those events for which they had been enjoined to be kept by the several Acts relating to them respectively, and for which services had been provided by Convocation. Thus 12 Car. II, c. 14. had enjoined the 29th of May to be kept in memory of the birth and return of the King, Charles II. And the Convocation had provided a service accordingly; but James II., dispensing with the laws of Church and State, by way of diminution, ordered it to be observed in memory of the Restoration of the Royal Family, altered the service, and omitted all mention of the King’s birth. The Act of Geo. II. takes no notice of any thing of this, but speaks of it still as the day kept in memory of the birth and return of King Charles II., to which the Convocation service is applicable, but the Crown service is not. In like manner the Act 3 Jac. I. c. 1. had enjoined the 5th of November to be kept in memory of the Gunpowder Treason, or Papists’ Conspiracy; and the Convocation had provided a service accordingly, celebrating this event only. But William III., like his predecessor, dispensing with the laws of Church and State, by way of addition, ordered it to be observed also in memory of his landing, and altered the service accordingly. The Act of Geo. II. takes no notice of any thing of this: the only event, in memory of which it speaks of the 5th of November as being kept, is the Papists’ Conspiracy, to which the Convocation service is applicable, which it is not to the two-fold purpose of William III.

If this was done through inattention, it will not alter the force of the Act; littera scripta manet: but if (as has been urged by some persons), it was duly and maturely weighed and considered, it is still more worthy of remark; amounting, as in that case it virtually does, to a deliberate refusal of the Parliament to sanction by an ex post facto Act the infringements of the temporal and ecclesiastical laws which James II. and William III. had both alike taken in hand in this matter.

The different footing on which the observance of the three days and their services rests from that on which the observance of the Sovereign’s Accession and its service is grounded, has been noticed above, section 2. It is worthy of record that this distinction was observed in the Royal Proclamations until the end of the reign of George II. Up to that time there were two Proclamations, one enjoining the three services to be appended to the Book of Common Prayer: this Proclamation having been first made by Charles II. on account of the Convocation services of 1662; and another ordering the service for the Sovereign’s Accession to be printed and published, but containing no direction that it should be appended to the Book of Common Prayer. At the accession of George III., for the first time, there was one Proclamation enjoining all four services to be appended to the Prayer Book; and then first the Calendar, provided by Convocation, and confirmed by Act of Parliament, was interpolated, without warrant from either, as it now stands to this day; four days being enumerated instead of the original three. 

From the foregoing statements, the accuracy of which the following documents will establish, the conclusion seems unavoidable; namely, that the particular services for the three days provided by Convocation in 1662, have the express force of Ecclesiastical law, and the, at least indirect, sanction of statute: and that the observance of them may therefore be enforced in the proper courts; but that the four services at present appended to the Prayer Book cannot be enforced, no authority being to be adduced in their behalf which would be deemed valid and sufficient in any court in the kingdom. A further question may be raised, namely, whether the printers to the Crown and to the Universities are not liable to be called to account for appending the four services last mentioned to the Common Prayer, instead of the three more duly authorised ones; and for interpolating the calendar established and confirmed by 24 Geo. II.

If this state of things is inconvenient, the remedy is simple, and at hand; namely, by the assembling of Convocation: with whose advice and consent Her Majesty may set forth, in a legitimate manner, proper services for all four days; and may afterwards, if she think fit, recommend to Parliament to confirm by civil sanction the decree of the assemblies of the Church.

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